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مسرحيه بيجماليون ...novle of pygmalion لجورج برنارد شو ربنا يكون معاكم ياطلاب ارحب $$

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هذي نبذه بسيطه عن المسرحيه منها نفهم القصه بصفه عااااااااامه وانشا الله تستفيدوا منها........
بجماليون لجورج بيرنارد شو

تبدأ مسرحية بجماليون كما كتبها جورج بيرنارد شو ، برهان يقوم بين العالم الأرستقراطي هنري هيغنز ، و صديقة الكولونيل بيكرنغ على فتاة هي اليزا دولتيل ، يلتقي فيها ذات يوم فتلفت لهجتها المبتذلة و أسلوبها المشاكس الوضيع في التصرف ، نظريهما و هنا يقول هيغنز لصديقة أن بإمكانه ، خلال اشهر قليلة أن يحول هذه الفتاة إلى سيدة أرستقراطية ، بمجرد تعليمها أناقة الحديث و أسرار اللهجة الراقية . و إذ يقول له الكولونيل أن هذا غير ممكن منطقيا ، و يقوم الرهان بين الرجلين . و على اثر ذلك يدنو هنري هيغنز من بائعة الزهور اليزا ، و يعرض عليها أن يعلمها المنطق مقابل بعض المال يعطيه لها و مال آخر يعطيه لأبيها ، و هكذا تأتي في اليوم التالي إلى بيته ، و تبدأ بالتمارين . و قد أبدت اليزا خلال التمارين استجابة و استعداد أذهلت أستاذها . و خلال فترة نجحت اليزا في الاختبارات التي أجريت لها ، و تحسن نطقها و كذلك تحسن مظهرها و يظهر ذلك خلال زيارة اليزا إلى بيت السيدة هيغنز في يوم استقبالها ، وكذلك يظهر خلال حفلة صاخبة في حديقة منزل سفير من أصدقاء هنري هيغنز فإلى تلك الحفلة اصطحب هيغنز تلميذته (اليزا) ليقدمها إلى الحفل على أساس أنها دوقة ، من دون أن يكشف سرها لأحد . و تتصرف اليزا مثل دوقة حقيقية ، نطقا و فهما و أناقة و تظهر كأنها خارجة من أرقى العائلات الأرستقراطية و يكسب بذلك هيغنز الرهان و بعد ذلك انتبهت اليزا إلى أن الرجلين لا يقيمان أي وزن لدورها في النصر ، و أكثر ما يؤثر فيها موقف هيغنز حيث أنها بدأت تميل إليه ووقعت في غرامة من دون أن يلاحظ هو شيئا و أنة يتجاهلها تماما معتبرها مجرد مادة أجرى عليها اختبارا ناجحا ، صحيح أنها كانت مادة طيعة بين يديه ، مثل المادة التي صنع منها بجماليون الأصلي منحوتته لكنها في نهاية الأمر كائن بشري تحب و تحزن ، إنها ليست مجرد دمية صنعت ، إن هذا كله تحسه اليزا ، لكن هنري هيغنز يعيش خارجة تماما فهو المهووس بعلمه و انتصاره ، ما كان ليخطر بباله مثل هذه الأشياء ،و بعد أن تيأس اليزا من قدرة هيغنز على فهم ما بها ، تلجأ إلى منزل والدته السيدة هيغنز فتقوم بتأنيب ابنها و لومه على ما فعل و من ثم يعود هيغنز إلى اليزا طالبا المغفرة و يعرض عليها أن تعيش معه و مع صديقة الكولونيل في منزله كثلاثي عازب ، فتغضب اليزا منه و ترفض عرضه فهي لا تسعى إلى الحصول على صداقة أو حياة مترفة ، بل ما يهمها هو الحنان ، يهمها أن ينظر إليها بحب .. لكنه هو يرفض هذا تماما محاولا إقناعها بأن هذا الأمر يتعارض مع طبيعته نفسها ، و إزاء هذا كله لم يعد في وسع اليزا التي صارت الآن أكثر ثقة بنفسها و قدرة على مجابهة الحياة إلا أن تعلن أمامه بأنها ستتزوج شابا صديقا له هو فريدي الذي كان يطاردها منذ زمن بعيد ، كما أنها تعلن إنها لن تعود لبيع الزهور بل ستصبح أستاذة صوتيات مثل هيغنز تماما ، بل سوف تنافسه في ذلك .

وهذه مقدمه عن الكاتب وسنتناقش فيها اقصد طلاب ارحب

جورج برنارد شو هو مؤلف بيجماليون
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ولد جورج برنارد شو في ايرلندا في السادس والعشرين من شهر تموز 1856م بمدينة دبلن ، وكان الابن الثالث لجورج كارشو ولوسيندا إليزابيث ، ينتمي أبوه إلى أسرة من النبلاء ، اما أمه فهي ابنة رجل من أهل الريف وقد بدأ الطفل حياته بتلقي بعض الدروس من مربية خاصة في بيت والديه ، كما تلقى بعض دروس اللغة اللاتينية من ابن عمه (برنارد شو) حتى جاء عام 1867 فذهب إلى مدرسة ويسليان في دبلن لكنه لم يتعلم شيئاً فذهب إلى مدرسة أخرى ، حتى نهاية المطاف في حياته المدرسية في (المدرسة الإنكليزية للعلوم والتجارة) التي تركها سنة 1867م .

وخلال تلك الأيام كانت بدأت أمه بتدريب صوتها الجميل على الغناء ، وأصبح (جورج فاندلير لي) معلم الموسيقى الخصوصي للأم شخصاً هاماً في حياة برنارد شو خاصة بعد ان انتقلت الام إلى منزل (لي) معلم الموسيقى في العام 1868م ، فوجد الصبي نفسه محاطاً خلال أربع سنوات برجال من أصحاب الموسيقى يعزفون الأوبرات الإيطالية والألمانية ، حتى أصبح شو يعزفها وقد اثر ذلك في الفتى الذي أصبح فيما بعد ناقداً موسيقياً في لندن كما اثر سماع الأوبرات ودراستها في تكوين الفتى ايضاً مما كان له تأثير عميق في مسرحياته .

لقد بدأ شو حياته العلمية في العام 1871م حين ترك المدرسة فاشتغل في عمل كتابي صغير في مخزن ، وكان الكثير من زملائه خلال تلك الفترة يحاولون جذبه إلى مذهب البروتستانت وهو يصر على الكاثولوكية ، وكان بدوره يعلمهم الغناء الاوبرالي في المكتب ، وظل شو يعمل في الوظيفة الكتابية أربع سنوات ونصف حتى اعتزم الهجرة إلى لندن وأخذ معه شهادة من المكتب الذي كان يعمل فيه .

كان برنارد شو يرى في لندن المركز الأدبي للغة الإنجليزية ، وقد أراد لنفسه ان يصبح ملكاً من ملوك الأدب ، وخلال تسع سنوات بين عامي 1876 و1885م استطاع قلم الملك الأدبي ان يربح ستة جنيهات وخمسة عشر شلناً ثمناً لمقال ، وخمسة شلنات أجراً على قصيدة ، وخلال تلك الفترة كان يعيش على معونة والده الذي ظل مقيماً في ايرلندا وكان يبعث اليه بجنيه واحد كل اسبوع حتى توفى في العام 1885م ، كما كان يعتمد في حياته على أمه التي عاش معها في فيكتوريا جروف في جنوب غربي لندن .

وقد اشتغل شو لمدة شهور قليلة خلال العام 1879م في شركة اديسون للتليفونات بمدينة لندن . وفي تلك الفترة كتب رواية (قبل الأوان) وفشل في الوصول إلى ناشر ينشرها ثم كتب ثلاث روايات أخرى لم تنشر ايضاً وكان كتابه (اشتراكي بلا اشتراكية) أول ما نشر له مسلسلاً في مجلة دورية اسمها (اليوم) وكان ذلك في العام 1884م ، ثم نشرت له دورية ايضاً كتاب (وظيفة كاشل بيرون) وفي عام 1885م نشرت مجلة (ركنتا) التي تصدرها السيدة (آني بيزانت) كتابين من كتبه وارتبطت به فيما بعد عن طريق جماعة الفابيين .

ولكن كتاباته للدراما شيء آخر ، فيجب على الكاتب ان يتعلم كيف يتكلم قبل ان يصبح مؤلفاً مسرحياً . وكان لابد لبرنارد شو ان يكتب كلمات منطوقة للمسرح اذ أراد ان يقتحم أبوابه وان يترك كتابة الكلمات المقروءة
لقد كانت السنوات الأولى التي قضاها شو في لندن غير مثمرة له من ناحية إنتاجه الأدبي الجاف ، ولكنها كانت التربة الخصبة التي نمت فيها مواهبه ككاتب مسرحي عالمي ، حتى قال بعض النقاد انه اخذ مكان شكسبير بعد ثلاثة قرون من وفاة الأستاذ الأول للدراما في العام 1616م .

لقد أصبح الشاب صاحب الثلاثة والعشرين ربيعاً الذي وقف يتلعثم في مناظرة حول كتاب (جون ستيوات مل) عام 1879م ، خطيباً عالمياً تدوي كلماته في جنبات مسرح المتروبوليتان في نيويورك في العام 1933م . وقد اصيب شو في العام بالجدري ومنذ ذلك الحين أطلق لحيته وشاربه ، وأصبح ذلك من سمات شخصيته ، والسبب في ذلك انه لم يكن يستخدم موساً لحلاقة ذقنه وكانت لحيته ذات أهمية كبيرة في حياته فقد ساعدته ان يصبح في مظهر قديس .

اشتغل شو بالصحافة منذ العام 1885م حين قدمه (وليم آرثر) الناقد المسرحي على انه عارض كتب في مجلة (بول مول) وعمل في السنة التالية ناقداً أدبياً في مجلة (العلم) وظل شو يعمل في هذه المجلة حتى عام 1889 حين اشتغل كاتباً في جريدة (ستار) المسائية اللندنية ، وقدمته تلك الجريدة لقرائها على انه ناقد موسيقي . وقد جمعت مقالاته التي كتبها في تلك الجريدة من 14 مايو 1888 حتى 16 مايو 1890م في كتاب اسمه (موسيقى لندن مـن 1888ـ1890م كما سمعها كونو دي باستو) وهذا الاسم المستعار لبرنارد شو .

ولم تكن أعمال شو الأدبية كلها تعدل حياته ككاتب مسرحي امتلك كل أدوات الكتابة للمسرح فدرس الموسيقى والرسم والنحت واشتغل بالنقد الفني والخطابة ثم انغمس في السياسة فأصبح اشتراكياً من أصحاب المدرسة الغابية ، ومر فوق ذلك كله بتجربة الكتابة مروراً عنيفاً فأدرك الفارق بين الكلمة المقروءة والكلمة المسموعة كما انه درس روايات شكسبير وروايات أبسن حتى انه كتب أول كتاب عن أبسن باللغة الإنجليزية في العام 1891 إلى جانب دراساته لكتب كارل ماركس .

ان شو وجد نفسه مقمحاً على المسرح ، ان لم ينكب على الكتابة له باختياره الفردي الحر ، بل دفع إلى ذلك دفعاً بوساطة قوى اكبر منه بكثير . هكذا قام (المسرح الجديد) في بريطانيا ـ ذلك الوليد الذي أخرجه شو الى الوجود ، وشكله وهذبه وجعل منه مسرح الأفكار الدعائي . في هذا المسرح لم يكن هناك مكان (للقصة الكاذبة التي تحكي بين فردين لا وجود لهما) . وإنما شغل هذا المسرح نفسه كل الانشغال باهتمامات المجتمع الجماعية ، وضرب صفحاً عن الفرد المنطوي على نفسه إلى درجة تجعله ميؤساً منه .

وتبين لدينا ان أعراض شو عن كتابة الرواية ، وكتابته للمسرح بعد ذلك إنما أحدث تغيراً في اللون الأدبي وليس تغيراً للمضمون ونريد الآن أن نصل إلى نتيجة بعينها تلك : ان هذا التعبير لم يستتبع تغيراً ذا بال من ناحية الصنعة . لقد ذهب شو يستعمل في مسرحياته نفس الصنعة التي استخدمها في الروايات ، وحين تتبين هذه الحقيقة نستطيع ان نفهم في غير كبير عناء الخصائص التي تميز مسرح شو ، والتكوينات غير الطبيعية التي نجدها في هذا المسرح .

وهكذا نجد ان شو يقيم هنا دعوى كبيرة ، تبدأ بالقول بأن طريقته الأدبية ان هي إلا محاولة لبث مزيد من التشويق في نص مسرحية مطبوعة ، لولاه لأصبح النص جامداً لا يسلى ثم تنتقل إلى القول بأن هذه الطريقة الأدبية لها ما يبرزها كهدف في حد ذاته ، وأنها تعين المؤلف والممثل على ان يقدم لنا دراسات واقعية للشخصيات ، وأنها لهذا كله ينبغي ان تعد خطوة إلى الإمام يخطوها الفن المسرحي ، وإضافة ذات بال للنظرية المسرحية ثم يزيد شو إلى هذا انه برغم ان هذه الطريقة إنما تمد السبيل إلى قيام فن غير درامي ، فهو شخصياً قد حرص بوصفه كاتباً مسرحياً ممارساً على ان يظل داخل حدود الفن المسرحي .

اما بالنسبة إلى نتاجه الأدبي فهو كثير التأليف فحصرنا مؤلفاته وفق الأبواب الآتية :
1ـ الروايات القصصية : (المراهقة (1930) ، عقدة غير معقولة (85ـ1887) ، الحب بين الفنانين (87ـ1888) ، صناعة كاشيل بيرون (85ـ1886) ، اجتماعي لا يجتمع (1887)) .

2ـ المسرحيات من 1892 إلى 1949 : (منازل الايامي ، زير النساء ، صناعة مسز وارين ، السلاح والإنسان ، كانديدا ، رجل القدر ، قلما تدرس ، تلميذ الشياطين ، قيصر وكليوبترا ، ارتداد الكابتن براسبوند ، الإنسان والسوبرمان ، ماجور برارا ، حيرة الطب ، يتزوج مطلع بلانكوبوسنيث ، سوء التوفيق ، سيدة الأغاني السمراء ، رواية فانـي الأولى ، اندروكليز والأسد ، مغلب ، بجماليون بيت القلب الكسير ، كاترين الكبرى ، عودة إلى متوشالح ، سان جوان ، عربة التفاح ، اصدق من ان يجود ، على الصخور ، المليونيرة ، جنيفة ، في أيام الملك شارك الصالح الذهبية ، سمبلين منقحة) .
3ـ فصول ومقالات : (لباب الابسنية ، الفاجنري الكامل ، صحة الفن ، مغامرات الزنجية في البحث عن الله) .
4ـ كتب سياسية : (دليل المرأة الذكية في الاشتراكية ورأس المال (1928) ، دليل السياسة للجميع (1944)) .

وله غير ما تقدم مسرحيات صغيرة ، ومقالات في الدعوة الاشتراكية ، وتعليقات على الفنون ، وردود على ناقديه ، وتراجم له في بعض ادوار حياته .
هكذا نجد شو معروفاً بصراحته ولذاعة قلمه ولسانه في كتاباته وفي أحاديثه ومجالسه فقد انطلقت فكاهته من عقالها لأنه أدرك انه مهما يكن من سبب العلل الاجتماعية التي يعاني منها الناس ، فانه هو نفسه أصبح بمنأى عن تلك العلل بل أكثر من هذا ، أصبح يملك الدواء الذي يشفيها . وهذا الإدراك المنتصر ادخل بدوره على فن شو عنصرين متميزين هما : التعليمية والهزل ، حصل على جائزة نوبل للآداب سنة 1925م ، توفي عن عمر ناهز الـ(90) عاماً تاركاً وراءه تراثاً كبيراً خلد به اسمه .
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شو و محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم
كان المثل الأعلى للشخصية الدينية عند شو هو محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم،(1) وهو يرى أن خير ما في حياة النبي أنه لم يدّع سلطة دينية سخرها في مأرب ديني، ولم يحاول أن يسيطر على قول المؤمنين، ولا أن يحول بين المؤمن وربه، ولم يفرض على المسلمين أن يتخذوه وسيلة لله تعالى

من أقوال برناردشو

"إنّ رجال الدين في القرون الوسطى، ونتيجةً للجهل أو التعصّب، قد رسموا لدين محمدٍ صورةً قاتمةً، لقد كانوا يعتبرونه عدوًّا للمسيحية، لكنّني اطّلعت على أمر هذا الرجل، فوجدته أعجوبةً خارقةً، وتوصلت إلى أنّه لم يكن عدوًّا للمسيحية، بل يجب أنْ يسمّى منقذ البشرية، وفي رأيي أنّه لو تولّى أمر العالم اليوم، لوفّق في حلّ مشكلاتنا بما يؤمن السلام والسعادة التي يرنو البشر إليها"

"لو تولى العالم الأوربي رجل مثل محمد لشفاه من علله كافة، بل يجب أن يدعى منقذ الإنسانية، إني أعتقد أن الديانة المحمدية هي الديانة الوحيدة التي تجمع كل الشرائط اللازمة وتكون موافقة لكل مرافق الحياة، لقد تُنُبِّئتُ بأن دين محمد سيكون مقبولاً لدى أوربا غداً وقد بدا يكون مقبولاً لديها اليوم، ما أحوج العالم اليوم إلى رجل كمحمد يحل مشاكل العالم."

ويقول برناردشو: "إنه لحكمة عليا كان الرجل أكثر تعرضاً للمخاطر من النساء فلو أصيب العالم بجائحة أفقدته ثلاثة أرباع الرجال، لكان لابد من العمل بشريعة محمد في زواج أربع نساء لرجل واحد ليستعيض ما فقده بعد ذلك بفترة وجيزة.




بجماليون







قد يستغرب قارئ "بجماليون" أن هذا الاسم ليس من أسماء شخصيات المسرحية. ذلك لأن الكاتب الإيرلندي "جورج برنارد شو" أخذ فكرة العمل عام 1912 من أسطورة يونانية قديمة عن مثّالٍ يدعى بجماليون كان كارهاً للنساء، فأراد أن يصنع تمثالاً لمايجب أن تكون عليه المرأة المثالية. وعندما انتهى من صنع التمثال العاجي بُهر بجماله الذي فاق حُسنَ أي امرأة من الأحياء. وماحدث بعد ذلك أنه غرق حتى أذنيه في غرام التمثال وبدأ يحضر له الهدايا من أثواب وحلي من تلك التي تغري الفتيات الجميلات، وأفرد للتمثال سرير مريحا ومخدة من ريش. كان يزوره يوميا ليطمئن عليه متأملا أن تدب فيه روح الحياة، لما كان يبدو عليه من الاكتمال والجمال. فيحرق البخور ويقدم القرابين لفينوس لتحول فتاته العاجية إلى روح حية ليتزوجها.
وبمعنى أدق ليلتحم جسد الفنان بقطعته الفنية التي خلقها كاملة جامدة. لكن الطريف في الأسطورة أن جلاتيا وهو الاسم الذي أطلقه المثال على تمثاله تدب فيها الحياة فعلا ويتحقق للفنان مايريد.
لم تلهم الأسطورة "برنارد شو" وحده، بل إن "توفيق الحكيم" عالج الأسطورة بطريقة جعلته يحول جلاتيا إلى فتاة مفتونة بجمالها مغرورة وأنانية ويسبغ عليها صفات بشرية فتتركه لتهرب مع شاب وسيم. فيعود بجماليون الخالق القاصر لتقديم القرابين لفينوس لتعيدها إلى حالها الأول كتمثال عاجي، وعندما يتحقق له ذلك يقوم بتحطيمها.
لقد ألهم بجماليون "برنارد شو" قصةً كانت أرضية خصبة للفن عامة (شعر وموسيقى وفن تشكيلي) وللدراما المسرحية والسينمائية عالميا وعربيا. ولا شك أن أغلبنا يذكر على الأقل فيلم "سيدتي الجميلة" my fair lady الذي قامت ببطولته "أودي هيبورن" في النصف الثاني من القرن العشرين والذي اعتبر في حينه أفضل فيلم أميريكي. وتم تحويله إلى مسرحية عربية بنفس الاسم قام ببطولتها كل من شويكار وفؤاد المهندس.
إن نص شو المسرحي لم يكن مختلفا بعمق الفكرة والمضمون عن الأسطورة الأصلية، رغم أنه اختلف كليا من حيث الشكل. فعالِم الصوتيات د.هيجنز (بيجماليون شو) رجل علم ومعرفة، أبعد مايكون عن رومانسية ومثالية بيجماليون الأسطورة أو بيجماليون توفيق الحكيم. د. هيجنز يأتي بـ"إليزا" بائعة الزهور السوقية ويُخضعها لتجربة علمية، ليؤكد أنه قادر على تحويلها من فتاة جاهلة إلى سيدة مثقفة وراقية. وبالنسبة له الأمر ليس مجرد تحول مادي أو طبقي بل هو تحولٌ جذري، فكري وسلوكي. ولم يعد من الممكن بعد أن ارتقت إليزا درجاتٍ واتسع وعيها أن تفكر بالزواج من طبقتها. فتدخل مرحلة صراع جديدة مع أستاذها في محاولةٍ للايقاع به والزواج منه. فهو أستاذها وصانعها ومثلها الأعلى. لكن إليزا الجديدة سرعان ما تدرك أنها أصبحت تمتلك سر التحرر وهو العلم، وبعلمها بإمكانها أن تعمل وتحقق أيضا استقلالها الاقتصادي وترتقي من مجرد تمثال جميل إلى إنسان متحرر وقادر.
برنارد شو في مسرحية بجماليون قدم أفكاره في العلاقات الانسانية والاجتماعية. أدعوكم لقراءة هذه المسرحية فهي أثرى بكثير مما يمكن أن يُطرح ملخصاً في مقالٍ واحد. ولأنني منحازة بتطرف للعمل الأدبي الذي يحافظ على تفوقه في مقابل كل الريبورتوارات المكتوبة والمجسدة فنيا.



منـــقول
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هذا هو تقريبا حل الواجب السادس بفكرة عامة ولكن عليكم كتابته باللغة الانكليزية مسرحيه بيجماليون ...novle of pygmalion لجورج برنارد شو ربنا يكون معاكم ياطلاب ارحب $$



في الواجب يجب على الطالب اولا ان يشرح ما معنى mayth



ثانيا ان يُعرف بشخصية بيجماليون الحقيقية وهي الشخصية الأسطورية التي الهمت جورج في روايته وان يقارن بين الشخصيات في الروايتين



لمن لم يجد الوقت لقراءة الرواية - هي مسجلة بالصوت على الأقراص المضغوطة التي جائت مع الكتب - القرصين الخامس والسادس - مسجلة بالنص الحرفي اسمعوها وتابعوا الرواية وستنتهوا منها في ظرف ساعتين فقط



بالتوفيق للجميع ان شاء الله وادعولي الله ينجحني مسرحيه بيجماليون ...novle of pygmalion لجورج برنارد شو ربنا يكون معاكم ياطلاب ارحب $$





بـجماليون" هوا اسم بطل المسرحية الذائعة الصيت للكاتب والفيلسوف الإيرلندي "جورج برنارد شو" والذي استوحى فكرة هذه المسرحية عام 1912 من أسطورة أغريقية ضاربة في أعماق التاريخ تحكي قصة نحات اغريقي يدعى بجماليون كان كارهاً للنساء يعيش منزوياً ووحيداً، فأراد أن يصنع تمثالاً لما يجب أن تكون عليه المرأة المثالية التي تحيا في مخيلته، فشرع في نحت تمثال بديع الجمال وعندما انتهى من صنع التمثال العاجي بُهر بجماله الذي فاق حُسنَ أي امرأة بالوجود آنذاك واسماه "جلاتيا". ثم ما لبث ان اكتشف انه قد غارق في حب ذلك التمثال-جلاتيا، الذي صنعه بيديه العاريتين، وبدأ يحضر لتمثاله المعبود الهدايا من أثواب وحلي وزينة من تلك الأشياء التي تغري الفتيات، وأفرد للتمثال سرير مريحا ومخدة من ريش وثير. كان يزور هذا التمثال يوميا ليطمئن عليه..يحدثه ويحدوه الأمل بأن تدب في جلاتيا التمثال الروح والحياة فيصير امرأة حقيقية، لما كان يبدو عليه من الكمال والفتنة والروعة والجمال. فأخذ يحرق البخور ويقدم القرابين ويصلي لفينوس (آلهة الحب والجمال وحامية العذارى في الميثولوجيا الأغريقية) لتحول فتاته العاجية جلاتيا إلى روح حية ليتزوجها.
لكن سرعان ما تتخلى عنه جلاتيا بعد أن صارت امرأة حقيقة تضحك وتبكي وتتنفس، وهو الذي غرس روحه بتفنن وتأني مدهشين وهو يخلق ملامحها وتفاصيلها ويمنحها جمالها، ويقضي الوقت بصلواته للآلهة كي تمنحها الحياة والروح..تلك المرأة جلاتيا سرعان ما تحولت إلى امرأة مفتونة بجمالها يملأها الغرور والأنانية فتتركه لتهرب مع شاب وسيم. فيعود بجماليون الخالق العاجز والمفجوع بعشيقته التي صنعها من أدق خلجات قلبه ورعشات أصابعه، يعود موجوعاً لتقديم القرابين لفينوس الآلهة كي تعيدها إلى حالها الأول كتمثال عاجي، يعود الى التضرع للآلهة كي تعيدها الى طبيعتها الأولى..تمثال من رخام لا حول له ولا قوة.... وعندما يتحقق له ذلك يقوم بتحطيم ذلك التمثال..أي بتحطيمها..لتعود كما كانت..وهماً منسيا
لم تلهم الأسطورة "برنارد شو" وحده فحسب، بل إن الأديب "توفيق الحكيم" في مسرحيته المبدعة التي حملت نفس الأسم والتي عالج من خلالها الأسطورة بطريقة مبتكرة تعانق بيئتنا الملحمية العربية، لتتحدث عن الفتاة غير المتحضرة ومتواضعة الجذور والتي تجد نفسها فجأة منخرطة في وسط المجتمع المخملي...لتتحول تدريجيا الى جلاتيا الأصلية كما في الأسطورة..لتغدو حطاماً بعد عين...تماما كما حدث مع صاحب الأسطوة الأغريقي الأصلي!
لقد ألهمت مسرحية بجماليون التي وضعها "برنارد شو" الكثيرين وكانت ولم تزل أرضية خصبة للفن سواء في شعر اوالموسيقى اوالفن التشكيلي، وللدراما المسرحية والسينمائية عالميا وعربيا.
إن نص شو المسرحي لم يكن مختلفا بعمق الفكرة والمضمون عن الأسطورة الأصلية، رغم أنه اختلف كليا من حيث الشكل، فهو، أبعد مايكون عن رومانسية ومثالية بيجماليون الأسطورة بحد ذاتها أو بيجماليون توفيق الحكيم. وفي نسخة الدكتور هيجنز التجريبية من بيجماليون يأتي بـ"إليزا" بائعة الزهور السوقية ويُخضعها لتجربة علمية، ليؤكد أنه قادر على تحويلها من فتاة جاهلة إلى سيدة مثقفة وراقية. والأمر هنا ليس مجرد تحول مادي أو طبقي بل هو تحولٌ جذري، فكري وسلوكي يسبر أعماق الإنسان. اذ لم يعد من الممكن بعد أن ارتقت إليزا درجاتٍ واتسع وعيها أن تفكر بالزواج من طبقتها. فتدخل مرحلة صراع جديدة مع أستاذها في محاولةٍ للايقاع به والزواج منه. فهو أستاذها وصانعها ومثلها الأعلى. لكن إليزا الجديدة سرعان ما تدرك أنها أصبحت تمتلك سر التحرر وهو العلم،وانه يمكنها من خلال علمها أن تعمل وتحقق أيضا استقلالها الاقتصادي وترتقي من مجرد تمثال جميل إلى إنسان ذات كينونة وحرية. لقد قدم برنارد شو في مسرحيته العملاقة بجماليون ملخصاً في العلاقات الانسانية والاجتماعية وتحولاتهما مع أن مسرحيته يغلب عليها طابع التهكم.



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منقـــول



هذه الرواية أقرب إلى رواية برنارد شو وكثيرة الشبه بالمسرحية



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هنا لا انسى ان اضيف ((( تنزه الله أحسن الخالقين عما يقولون )))
نقرأ ما يكتبون لنعلم ما نحن به من خير ونعمة والحمد لله على نعمة الاسلام







جلست على الكمبيوتر مده طويله جداا حتى اجلب لكم كل مايتعلق عن pygmalion من تحليلات وشخصيات

شدوا حيلكم في الحل .. والله يوفقكم جميعا يارب













والحين مالكم عذر ابدااااااااااااااا انكم ماتجيبوا درجه كويسهمسرحيه بيجماليون ...novle of pygmalion لجورج برنارد شو ربنا يكون معاكم ياطلاب ارحب $$
منقووول لعيونكم .....
لاتنسوني من دعائكم




لا تنسوني من صالح دعائكم والي عندها اي اي شي عن المسرحيه تنزله بعد عشان نستفيد كلنا...
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مسرحيه بيجماليون ...novle of pygmalion لجورج برنارد شو ربنا يكون معاكم ياطلاب ارحب $$ مسرحيه بيجماليون ...novle of pygmalion لجورج برنارد شو ربنا يكون معاكم ياطلاب ارحب $$

ليس هناك من خدمة يمكن أن يؤديها الفرد لأمته أجلُ من أن يملأ ارجاءها بالناس الناجحين، والأفراد المؤمنين بأنفسهم ، والواثقين من مقدرتهم على تحقيق كل الأماني الطيبة والحصول على سائر الأشياء الجميلة في الحياة
مسرحيه بيجماليون ...novle of pygmalion لجورج برنارد شو ربنا يكون معاكم ياطلاب ارحب $$ مسرحيه بيجماليون ...novle of pygmalion لجورج برنارد شو ربنا يكون معاكم ياطلاب ارحب $$


YeMeNi_4_EvEr




التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة غلطه الايام ; 10-14-2010 الساعة 12:53 PM
غلطه الايام غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-15-2010, 02:54 PM   #2 (permalink)
روانة
مشرف متميز سابقاً
غريبة من دون الناس
 
الصورة الرمزية روانة
يعطيك العافية يارب على الطرح

سلمت يديمك ولا عدمناك

كل الود والتقدير

تحياتي لك
روانة غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-17-2010, 04:40 PM   #3 (permalink)
غلطه الايام
رومانسي مبتديء
 
الصورة الرمزية غلطه الايام
 
الله يعافي عمرك يا رب
شرفتي اختي رينا يحفظك
غلطه الايام غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-19-2010, 06:30 PM   #4 (permalink)
غلطه الايام
رومانسي مبتديء
 
الصورة الرمزية غلطه الايام
 
Pygmalion (play)

The story

It is the story of Professor Henry Higgins, a professor of phonetics, who wagers that he can turn a Cockney flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, into the toast of London society merely by teaching her how to speak with an upper-class accent. In the process, he becomes fond of her and attempts to direct her future, but she rejects his domineering ways and marries a young aristocrat.
The original stage play shocked audiences by Eliza's use of a swear word. Humour is drawn from her ability to speak well, but without an understanding of the conversation acceptable to polite society. For example, when asked whether she is walking home, she replies, 'Not bloody likely!' The actress Mrs Patrick Campbell, for whom Shaw wrote the role, was thought to risk her career by uttering the line.

Origins of the story

Shaw used Pygmalion from Roman mythology as the basis for his play. Shaw's play also owes something to the legend of "King Cophetua and the beggar maid"; in which a King lacks interest in women, but one day falls in love with a young beggar-girl, later educating her to be his Queen.

The staging

Shaw completed Pygmalion and later that same year it was translated into German. This is important because the very first performance was played by English actors in Vienna, Austria, with none other than Mrs. Patrick Campbell as Eliza Doolittle. Pygmalion opened at the Hofburg Theatre on October 16, 1913, however it was moved to England, with the same cast, and opened there, on April 11, 1914 at His Majesty's Theatre. This was the first time Shaw's Pygmalion was performed in English.

The 1938 film version

In 1938, a film version of the stage play was released,[1] starring Leslie Howard as Higgins, Wendy Hiller as Eliza, Wilfrid Lawson as her father Alfred Doolittle, Scott Sunderland as Colonel George Pickering, and David Tree as Freddy Eynsford-Hill. It was adapted to film by Shaw, W.P. Lipscomb, Cecil Lewis, Ian Dalrymple, and Anatole de Grunwald from the Shaw play, and directed by Anthony Asquith and Leslie Howard. The movie was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture.

My Fair Lady

The play was the basis for the musical play and film My Fair Lady.[2]
The play, the stage musical, and the film musical have different endings. At the end of the play, Eliza leaves Higgins to marry the aristocrat Freddy Eynsford-Hill. Shaw, annoyed by the tendency of audiences, actors, and even directors to seek 'romantic' re-interpretations of his ending, later wrote an essay for inclusion with subsequent editions in which he explained precisely why it was impossible for the story to end with Higgins and Eliza getting together. In the stage musical, this is left unresolved, and the final scene is of a lonely Higgins. Both the 1938 film and the filmed version of the musical add a final scene with both of them apparently about to reconcile.

Homages in film

Contemporary versions of the Pygmalion motif can be found in Willy Russell's play Educating Rita (1980) and Pretty Woman. A more recent version of the Pygmalion motif can be found indirectly in many teen movies, such as Can't Buy Me Love in the 80s (with its 2000s counterpart remake) and more directly in the movie She's All That.

Pygmalion is a fictional character from the Roman poet Ovid, found in the tenth book of his ****morphoses. Pygmalion is a sculptor who falls in love with a statue he has made.
Pygmalion was a lonely Cypriot sculptor who carved a woman out of ivory. According to Ovid he is 'not interested in women', but his statue is so realistic that he falls in love with it. He offers the statue presents and eventually prays to Venus, the goddess of beauty and love. Venus takes pity on him and brings the statue to life. He marries, and their daughter Paphos was the product of the union between Pygmalion and his statue-wife.
Ovid's mention of Paphos suggests he was drawing on the earlier work of Apollodorus, who also wrote about a Pygmalion. The story has its classical roots in that of Daedalus, who uses quicksilver to install a voice in his statues; and of Hephaestus who creates Talos (an artificial bronze man), and Pandora (from clay, at the behest of Zeus).


Re-interpretations of Pygmalion

The basic Pygmalion story has been widely transmitted and re-presented in the arts through the centuries. At an unknown date, later authors give the name of the statue as the sea-nymph Galatea or Galathea. Goethe calls her Elise, based upon the variants in the story of Dido/Elissa.
In the Middle Ages Pygmalion was held up as an example of the excesses of idolatry, probably spurred by Clement of Alexandria's suggestion that Pygmalion had carved an image of Venus herself. But by the 18th century it was a highly influential love-story, seen as such in Rousseau's musical play of the story. By the 19th century, the story often becomes one in which the awakened beloved rejects Pygmalion; although she comes alive, she is initially cold and unattainable.
The story has been the subject of notable paintings by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Honoré Daumier, Edward Burne-Jones (four major works from 1868-1870, then again in larger versions from 1875-1878), Auguste Rodin, Ernest Normand, Paul Delvaux, Francisco Goya, Francois Boucher, and Thomas Rowlandson, among others. There have also been numerous sculptures of the 'awakening'.
Ovid's Pygmalion has also provided inspiration for several works of literature, including William Morris's Earthly Paradise, and Friedrich Schiller's Ideals. Both Morris and Schiller described the statue as made of marble.
There have also been successful modern stage-plays such as: W. S. Gilbert's Pygmalion and Galatea (1871); George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion (1912, staged 1914); and My Fair Lady (1956). Shaw's play also owes something to the legend of "King Cophetua and the beggar maid"; in which a King lacks interest in women, but one day falls in love with a young beggar-girl, later educating her to be his Queen.
Notable 20th century feature films are My Fair Lady (1964, based on the stage play); Mighty Aphrodite by director Woody Allen; and the film Mannequin, a remake of the 1948 classic One Touch of Venus.
The popular horror genre in film has also had an interest in 'bringing to life' waxwork figures and show-room dummies (see: Waxworks: A Cultural Obsession by Michelle Bloom).

PREFACE TO PYGMALION.

A Professor of Phonetics.
As will be seen later on, Pygmalion needs, not a preface, but a sequel, which I have supplied in its due place. The English have no respect for their language, and will not teach their children to speak it. They spell it so abominably that no man can teach himself what it sounds like. It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without making some other Englishman hate or despise him. German and Spanish are accessible to foreigners: English is not accessible even to Englishmen. The reformer England needs today is an energetic phonetic enthusiast: that is why I have made such a one the hero of a popular play. There have been heroes of that kind crying in the wilderness for many years past. When I became interested in the subject towards the end of the eighteen-seventies, Melville Bell was dead; but Alexander J. Ellis was still a living patriarch, with an impressive head always covered by a velvet skull cap, for which he would apologize to public meetings in a very courtly manner. He and Tito Pagliardini, another phonetic veteran, were men whom it was impossible to dislike. Henry Sweet, then a young man, lacked their sweetness of character: he was about as conciliatory to conventional mortals as Ibsen or Samuel Butler. His great ability as a phonetician (he was, I think, the best of them all at his job) would have entitled him to high official recognition, and perhaps enabled him to popularize his subject, but for his Satanic contempt for all academic dignitaries and persons in general who thought more of Greek than of phonetics. Once, in the days when the Imperial Institute rose in South Kensington, and Joseph Chamberlain was booming the Empire, I induced the editor of a leading monthly review to commission an article from Sweet on the imperial importance of his subject. When it arrived, it contained nothing but a savagely derisive attack on a professor of language and literature whose chair Sweet regarded as proper to a phonetic expert only. The article, being libelous, had to be returned as impossible; and I had to renounce my dream of dragging its author into the limelight. When I met him afterwards, for the first time for many years, I found to my astonishment that he, who had been a quite tolerably presentable young man, had actually managed by sheer scorn to alter his personal appearance until he had become a sort of walking repudiation of Oxford and all its traditions. It must have been largely in his own despite that he was squeezed into something called a Readership of phonetics there. The future of phonetics rests probably with his pupils, who all swore by him; but nothing could bring the man himself into any sort of compliance with the university, to which he nevertheless clung by divine right in an intensely Oxonian way. I daresay his papers, if he has left any, include some satires that may be published without too destructive results fifty years hence. He was, I believe, not in the least an ill-natured man: very much the opposite, I should say; but he would not suffer fools gladly.

0. Introduction (continued)
Those who knew him will recognize in my third act the allusion to the patent Shorthand in which he used to write postcards, and which may be acquired from a four and six-penny manual published by the Clarendon Press. The postcards which Mrs. Higgins describes are such as I have received from Sweet. I would decipher a sound which a cockney would represent by zerr, and a Frenchman by seu, and then write demanding with some heat what on earth it meant. Sweet, with boundless contempt for my stupidity, would reply that it not only meant but obviously was the word Result, as no other Word containing that sound, and capable of making sense with the context, existed in any language spoken on earth. That less expert mortals should require fuller indications was beyond Sweet's patience. Therefore, though the whole point of his "Current Shorthand" is that it can express every sound in the language perfectly, vowels as well as consonants, and that your hand has to make no stroke except the easy and current ones with which you write m, n, and u, l, p, and q, scribbling them at whatever angle comes easiest to you, his unfortunate determination to make this remarkable and quite legible ****** serve also as a Shorthand reduced it in his own practice to the most inscrutable of cryptograms. His true objective was the provision of a full, accurate, legible ****** for our noble but ill-dressed language; but he was led past that by his contempt for the popular Pitman system of Shorthand, which he called the Pitfall system. The triumph of Pitman was a triumph of business organization: there was a weekly paper to persuade you to learn Pitman: there were cheap textbooks and exercise books and tran******s of speeches for you to copy, and schools where experienced teachers coached you up to the necessary proficiency. Sweet could not organize his market in that fashion. He might as well have been the Sybil who tore up the leaves of prophecy that nobody would attend to. The four and six-penny manual, mostly in his lithographed handwriting, that was never vulgarly advertized, may perhaps some day be taken up by a syndicate and pushed upon the public as The Times pushed the Encyclopaedia Britannica; but until then it will certainly not prevail against Pitman. I have bought three copies of it during my lifetime; and I am informed by the publishers that its cloistered existence is still a steady and healthy one. I actually learned the system two several times; and yet the shorthand in which I am writing these lines is Pitman's. And the reason is, that my secretary cannot transcribe Sweet, having been perforce taught in the schools of Pitman. Therefore, Sweet railed at Pitman as vainly as Thersites railed at Ajax: his raillery, however it may have eased his soul, gave no popular vogue to Current Shorthand. Pygmalion Higgins is not a portrait of Sweet, to whom the adventure of Eliza Doolittle would have been impossible; still, as will be seen, there are touches of Sweet in the play. With Higgins's physique and temperament Sweet might have set the Thames on fire. As it was, he impressed himself professionally on Europe to an extent that made his comparative personal obscurity, and the failure of Oxford to do justice to his eminence, a puzzle to foreign specialists in his subject. I do not blame Oxford, because I think Oxford is quite right in demanding a certain social amenity from its nurslings (heaven knows it is not exorbitant in its requirements!); for although I well know how hard it is for a man of genius with a seriously underrated subject to maintain serene and kindly relations with the men who underrate it, and who keep all the best places for less important subjects which they profess without originality and sometimes without much capacity for them, still, if he overwhelms them with wrath and disdain, he cannot expect them to heap honors on him.

Of the later generations of phoneticians I know little. Among them towers the Poet Laureate, to whom perhaps Higgins may owe his Miltonic sympathies, though here again I must disclaim all portraiture. But if the play makes the public aware that there are such people as phoneticians, and that they are among the most important people in England at present, it will serve its turn.
I wish to boast that Pygmalion has been an extremely successful play all over Europe and North America as well as at home. It is so intensely and deliberately didactic, and its subject is esteemed so dry, that I delight in throwing it at the heads of the wiseacres who repeat the parrot cry that art should never be didactic. It goes to prove my contention that art should never be anything else.
Finally, and for the encouragement of people troubled with accents that cut them off from all high employment, I may add that the change wrought by Professor Higgins in the flower girl is neither impossible nor uncommon. The modern concierge's daughter who fulfils her ambition by playing the Queen of Spain in Ruy Blas at the Theatre Francais is only one of many thousands of men and women who have sloughed off their native dialects and acquired a new tongue. But the thing has to be done scientifically, or the last state of the aspirant may be worse than the first. An honest and natural slum dialect is more tolerable than the attempt of a phonetically untaught person to imitate the vulgar dialect of the golf club; and I am sorry to say that in spite of the efforts of our Academy of Dramatic Art, there is still too much sham golfing English on our stage, and too little of the noble English of Forbes Robertson



Author Biography



George Bernard Shaw was born into a poor Protestant family in Dublin, Ireland, on July 26, 1856. Despite childhood neglect (his father was an alcoholic), he became one of the most prominent writers of modern Britain. His mother introduced him to music and art at an early age and after 1876, when he moved to London to continue his self-education, she supported him for nine more years. During this period Shaw wrote five unsuccessful novels, then, in 1884, he met William Archer, the prominent journalist and drama critic, who urged him to write plays. Through Archer, Shaw became music critic for a London newspaper. With a strong background in economics and politics, Shaw rose to prominence through the socialist Fabian Society, which he helped organize in 1884. He also established himself as a persuasive orator and became well known as a critic of art, music, and literature. In 1895 he became the drama critic for the Saturday Review



Characters:


Professor Henry Higgins - Henry Higgins is a professor of phonetics who plays Pygmalion to Eliza Doolittle's Galatea. He is the author of Higgins' Universal Alphabet, believes in concepts like visible speech, and uses all manner of recording and photographic material to ×××××××× his phonetic subjects, reducing people and their dialects into what he sees as readily understandable units. He is an unconventional man, who goes in the opposite direction from the rest of society in most matters. Indeed, he is impatient with high society, forgetful in his public graces, and poorly considerate of normal social niceties--the only reason the world has not turned against him is because he is at heart a good and harmless man. His biggest fault is that he can be a bully.


Eliza Doolittle - "She is not at all a romantic figure." So is she introduced in Act I. Everything about Eliza Doolittle seems to defy any conventional notions we might have about the romantic heroine. When she is transformed from a sassy, smart-mouthed kerbstone flower girl with deplorable English, to a (still sassy) regal figure fit to consort with nobility, it has less to do with her innate qualities as a heroine than with the fairy-tale aspect of the transformation myth itself. In other words, the character of Eliza Doolittle comes across as being much more instrumental than fundamental. The real (re-)making of Eliza Doolittle happens after the ambassador's party, when she decides to make a statement for her own dignity against Higgins' insensitive treatment. This is when she becomes, not a duchess, but an independent woman; and this explains why Higgins begins to see Eliza not as a mill around his neck but as a creature worthy of his admiration.


Colonel Pickering - Colonel Pickering, the author of Spoken Sanskrit, is a match for Higgins (although somewhat less obsessive) in his passion for phonetics. But where Higgins is a boorish, careless bully, Pickering is always considerate and a genuinely gentleman. He says little of note in the play, and appears most of all to be a civilized foil to Higgins' barefoot, absentminded crazy professor. He helps in the Eliza Doolittle experiment by making a wager of it, saying he will cover the costs of the experiment if Higgins does indeed make a convincing duchess of her. However, while Higgins only manages to teach Eliza pronunciations, it is Pickering's thoughtful treatment towards Eliza that teaches her to respect herself.


Alfred Doolittle - Alfred Doolittle is Eliza's father, an elderly but vigorous dustman who has had at least six wives and who "seems equally free from fear and conscience." When he learns that his daughter has entered the home of Henry Higgins, he immediately pursues to see if he can get some money out of the circumstance. His unique brand of rhetoric, an unembarrassed, unhypocritical advocation of drink and pleasure (at other people's expense), is amusing to Higgins. Through Higgins' joking recommendation, Doolittle becomes a richly endowed lecturer to a moral reform society, transforming him from lowly dustman to a picture of middle class morality--he becomes miserable. Throughout, Alfred is a scoundrel who is willing to sell his daughter to make a few pounds, but he is one of the few unaffected characters in the play, unmasked by appearance or language. Though scandalous, his speeches are honest. At points, it even seems that he might be Shaw's voice piece of social criticism (Alfred's proletariat status, given Shaw's socialist leanings, makes the prospect all the more likely).


Mrs. Higgins - Professor Higgins' mother, Mrs. Higgins is a stately lady in her sixties who sees the Eliza Doolittle experiment as idiocy, and Higgins and Pickering as senseless children. She is the first and only character to have any qualms about the whole affair. When her worries prove true, it is to her that all the characters turn. Because no woman can match up to his mother, Higgins claims, he has no interest in dallying with them. To observe the mother of Pygmalion (Higgins), who completely understands all of his failings and inadequacies, is a good contrast to the mythic proportions to which Higgins builds himself in his self-estimations as a scientist of phonetics and a creator of duchesses.


Freddy Eynsford Hill - Higgins' surmise that Freddy is a fool is probably accurate. In the opening scene he is a spineless and resourceless lackey to his mother and sister. Later, he is comically bowled over by Eliza, the half-baked duchess who still speaks cockney. He becomes lovesick for Eliza, and courts her with letters. At the play's close, Freddy serves as a young, viable marriage option for Eliza, making the possible path she will follow unclear to the reader





Pygmalion




Pygmalion is one of Shaw's most popular plays as well as one of his most straightforward ones. It shows Shaw's idea about his society at his time. He considers many themes such as social class, identity, self-improvement, gender role, education, feelings and relationships. This essay explains the theme of equality in Shaw's play Pygmalion, the gender role, analysis the developing of the main characters which are used as literacy device to explain ideas and belief, relationships and feeling.



Pygmalion illustrates the difference and tension between the upper and lower class a basic belief of the period was that a person is born into a class and that no one can move from one class to another. Shaw on the contrary, believed that personality isn’t defined by birth. Instead, he thought that you can achieve social change if you really believe in yourself. As to the play, the barriers between classes aren’t natural and can be broken down.



Eliza and Alfred Doolittle, originally living in bad conditions, represent the working class. What happens to Eliza and her father expresses show's belief that people are able to improve their lives through their own efforts. But they have to consider that their character might change as well. Thus it doesn't seem surprising that the difference between a lady and a flower girl lies rather in her treatment than in her behavior. Shaw's criticism is obvious in the paradox of Alfred's character. He is happy being poor and miserable being rich. In the same way, Doolittle shows how difficult it can be to change one's whole personality. Once he becomes wealthy, he adopts behaviors and habits of the upper class and will not mix with people who he thinks below him, in trying to impress others its effect his own character and personality.



The upper class regards background and wealth as decisive and is keen to preserve class distinction. In the play they are represented by the Eysford Hills appearing dishonest toward themselves. They escape from reality and prefer an illusion. This can be explained by that fact that the Eysford Hills are lacking money, but refuse to go earning their own living. Clara can be seen as an exception because she makes up her mind and takes an honest realistic look to her own life.




Gender inequality



In Shaw's day women were subordinate to men. They were regarded as property. Therefore Eliza's fathers are a good example of this attitude "selling" Eliza to Higgins as if she was his property. This shows that inequality of the sexes is even greater than inequality between classes.



In Pygmalion, we also find the aspect of nature selection. Yet Higgins succeeds in his experiment and consequently, Charles Darwin's theory seems to be defeated. Eliza has been made a lady, regardless of her origins. During that time, the belief prevailed that only a man turn a woman into a lady. This is illustrated in Eliza's helplessness and in the way Higgins treats her.


The conflict reaches its climax when Higgins suggests that Eliza should marry. As to Eliza's situation, she has to decide between marrying and going out to work. This reflect the contemporary beliefs that it wad degrading of women to earn their own living. However, Eliza begins to rebel against Higgins by tossing the slippers at him. That can be seen as a way of release to the other ladies. Eliza's behavior stands for women who struggled for their rights in those days.



Self-improvement, Character of Eliza



Eliza Doolittle, is an uneducated, streetwise cockney flower girl, Eliza's intelligence allows her to recognize her won self-worth and the worth of others.


Before Eliza first encountered Mr. Higgins, she was simply a dirty, During her time with both Mr., Higgins and Colonel Pickering, Eliza did change, for the first few weeks of her stay in Wimpole Street, she questioned everything that Higgins asked her to do, and generally couldn’t see how they would help her, later, Eliza begins to understand that Higgins, as harsh as he is, is trying to do his best to teach her, and therefore should be respected. Eliza's basic character remains relatively unchanged. We can still observe the old Eliza, under the upper-class persona.


When the play opens, the audience is shown a brief glimpse of the world that Eliza occupies as a flower girl as she tries to wheedle a few coins in return for violets from the group of people seeking shelter under the Portico of St. Paul's church. She is forced by her circumstances to coax money out of prospective ******ers. Eliza however can express her feeling of wonder and fear only by crying out an indistinguishable sounding "Ah-ah-ah-ow-ow-ow-oo!" A little later when she receives a handful of coins she goes almost wild with delight and lacking the ability to express her feelings articulately can again only utter a baffling "Ah-ah-ow-ow-oo!" For Eliza, pain, wonder, fear and delight become an indiscriminate sound of vowels. At this point the audience is not aware that beneath this dirt and terrible speech lies the ability to evolve into a polished human being.


However, even in this pathetic state Eliza is not totally depraved. She is self-sufficient and capable of earning her living by selling flowers. She exhibits cleverness and a degree of resourcefulness to get the maximum value possible for her flowers. The cab acts as the vehicle that carries her over the threshold from the shabby indigent world to the comforts of genteel life in Act Two. Wearing an ostrich feather hat and a shabby worn out coat, Eliza strikes one as a pathetic and odd figure. She haughtily demands that Higgins teach her to speak properly so that she can become a lady in a flower shop instead of selling flowers. Evidently at this stage Eliza only craves the economic security and social respectability that would come with her ability to speak correctly. She does not know that this desire for security and respectability only constitutes the second small step in her larger quest for self-realization. However she is required to purge both her body and soul before she can ascend to a higher plane of awareness. Her haughty air is soon reduced to confusion, fear, and helplessness as she bears the tyrannical outbursts of Higgins who insultingly calls her a "baggage" and "a draggle-tailed guttersnipe."


Her soul is thus cleansed of childish pretensions as she encounters the grim real world. She undergoes a cleansing of her body at a physical level: her dirty clothes are burnt and her body purified through a hot bath. For Higgins and Pickering the ambassador's ball was a great success. Eliza, on the other hand, had fulfilled her purpose as far as Higgins was concerned, she was merely a tool used to enhance Higgins reputation in society. Having shown absolutely no appreciation toward Eliza, Higgins kept boasting about his success. And failed to acknowledge Eliza, besides the one time he did, which was simply to make clear that it was not Eliza the won his bet, but it was himself.


Higgins did change Eliza. Originally she was a kind innocent girl trying to stay alive the gutter of London. Higgins through the introduction to high-society had altered Eliza's way of thinking. It was good for Eliza to become stronger as she did. It was good that Mr. Higgins finally had something go wrong for him. Eliza was changed by her interaction with Higgins.



Character of Higgins



Henry Higgins is a phonetic expert and a scientist who loves anything that can be studies as a scientific subject. His enthusiasm for the study masks his human qualities.



Through Pygmalion Higgins is seen as a very rude man, while one may expect a well educated man such as Higgins, to be a gentleman. Higgins believes that how you treat some one is not important, as long as you treat everyone equal. The greater secret, Eliza, is not having bad manner or good manner or any other particular sort of manner, but having the same manner for all human souls.


Higgins presents this theory to Eliza, in hope of justifying his treatment of her; this theory would be fine if Higgins himself lived by it, and however he lives by a variety of variation of this philosophy.



Higgins could never see the "new Eliza" Higgins only saw the dirty flower girl that become his 'experiment' Much like an author never sees a work as finished, since Higgins knew where Eliza came form it was difficult for him to make her parts fit together as a masterpiece that he respect.



Part of Higgins' problem in recognizing the "new Eliza is his immaturity. He does not sees her as what she is, he only sees her as what she was.




Feelings and relationships



Psychology plays a significant role in Higgins' relationship with Eliza. Although everybody wants somebody to love, they don't seem to be capable of a close relationship.



Higgins on the one hand can be described as a rude, careless and impolite character, but at the same time likeable because of his fascination and dedication to his work. His mother holds a great fascination for him; she speaks properly, has good manners and is the only woman Higgins adores. In general, he appears small-minded and doesn't reflect about problems Eliza might be confronted with. Eliza, on the other hand, is willing to learn and does her best to please Higgins. When she becomes aware of Higgins' goals she eventually gets disappointing and angry. She feels as the subject of the experiment, while Higgins, never reflecting about her feelings, treats her in an impersonal way and can't understand her. There can't be a relationship, in which both obtain an equal position. Henry and Eliza don't fit together because of their strong characters.



Eliza knows that she can't go back to her old life, but otherwise, she has no firm position in society. Instead of fetching Higgins's slippers, she marries Freddy who has a weaker character. Perhaps Freddy would fetch her slippers, but she is keen to work, too. Her rebellion becomes more obvious in comparison to Higgins. She shows that she is not a mere subject, but a freethinking individual. In a realistic manner, she finds Higgins' weak point and overrules his subjections. She doesn't want to be intimidated.



So in conclusion, we can say that it was not Higgins who has created a new woman by himself. Indeed, Eliza has changed her personality through her own efforts. This is due to Higgins' treatment: he didn't consider her feelings.





وهذه سمات الشخصيات



Professor Henry Higgins - Henry Higgins is a professor of phonetics who plays Pygmalion to Eliza Doolittle's Galatea. He is the author of Higgins' Universal Alphabet, believes in concepts like visible speech, and uses all manner of recording and photographic material to ×××××××× his phonetic subjects, reducing people and their dialects into what he sees as readily understandable units. He is an unconventional man, who goes in the opposite direction from the rest of society in most matters. Indeed, he is impatient with high society, forgetful in his public graces, and poorly considerate of normal social niceties--the only reason the world has not turned against him is because he is at heart a good and harmless man. His biggest fault is that he can be a bully.



Eliza Doolittle - "She is not at all a romantic figure." So is she introduced in Act I. Everything about Eliza Doolittle seems to defy any conventional notions we might have about the romantic heroine. When she is transformed from a sassy, smart-mouthed kerbstone flower girl with deplorable English, to a (still sassy) regal figure fit to consort with nobility, it has less to do with her innate qualities as a heroine than with the fairy-tale aspect of the transformation myth itself. In other words, the character of Eliza Doolittle comes across as being much more instrumental than fundamental. The real (re-)making of Eliza Doolittle happens after the ambassador's party, when she decides to make a statement for her own dignity against Higgins' insensitive treatment. This is when she becomes, not a duchess, but an independent woman; and this explains why Higgins begins to see Eliza not as a mill around his neck but as a creature worthy of his admiration.


Colonel Pickering - Colonel Pickering, the author of Spoken Sanskrit, is a match for Higgins (although somewhat less obsessive) in his passion for phonetics. But where Higgins is a boorish, careless bully, Pickering is always considerate and a genuinely gentleman. He says little of note in the play, and appears most of all to be a civilized foil to Higgins' barefoot, absentminded crazy professor. He helps in the Eliza Doolittle experiment by making a wager of it, saying he will cover the costs of the experiment if Higgins does indeed make a convincing duchess of her. However, while Higgins only manages to teach Eliza pronunciations, it is Pickering's thoughtful treatment towards Eliza that teaches her to respect herself.


Alfred Doolittle - Alfred Doolittle is Eliza's father, an elderly but vigorous dustman who has had at least six wives and who "seems equally free from fear and conscience." When he learns that his daughter has entered the home of Henry Higgins, he immediately pursues to see if he can get some money out of the circumstance. His unique brand of rhetoric, an unembarrassed, unhypocritical advocation of drink and pleasure (at other people's expense), is amusing to Higgins. Through Higgins' joking recommendation, Doolittle becomes a richly endowed lecturer to a moral reform society, transforming him from lowly dustman to a picture of middle class morality--he becomes miserable. Throughout, Alfred is a scoundrel who is willing to sell his daughter to make a few pounds, but he is one of the few unaffected characters in the play, unmasked by appearance or language. Though scandalous, his speeches are honest. At points, it even seems that he might be Shaw's voice piece of social criticism (Alfred's proletariat status, given Shaw's socialist leanings, makes the prospect all the more likely).


Mrs. Higgins - Professor Higgins' mother, Mrs. Higgins is a stately lady in her sixties who sees the Eliza Doolittle experiment as idiocy, and Higgins and Pickering as senseless children. She is the first and only character to have any qualms about the whole affair. When her worries prove true, it is to her that all the characters turn. Because no woman can match up to his mother, Higgins claims, he has no interest in dallying with them. To observe the mother of Pygmalion (Higgins), who completely understands all of his failings and inadequacies, is a good contrast to the mythic proportions to which Higgins builds himself in his self-estimations as a scientist of phonetics and a creator of duchesses.


Freddy Eynsford Hill - Higgins' surmise that Freddy is a fool is probably accurate. In the opening scene he is a spineless and resourceless lackey to his mother and sister. Later, he is comically bowled over by Eliza, the half-baked duchess who still speaks cockney. He becomes lovesick for Eliza, and courts her with letters. At the play's close, Freddy serves as a young, viable marriage option for Eliza, making the possible path she will follow unclear to the reader





Pygmalion (1938)




is the non-musical film version of George Bernard Shaw's 1912 stage play, a socio-economic drama based on the Cinderella story, but actually taken from the Greek myth of Pygmalion - about a sculptor who fell in love with a marble statue of his own making. The Broadway musical remake that was inspired from this film, Lerner and Loewe's 1956 production, also led to the famous film musical My Fair Lady (1962), that would walk away with eight Oscars (out of twelve), including Best Picture. This film garnered four Academy Award nominations (with one win), including Best Picture, Best Actor (Leslie Howard), and Best Actress (Wendy Hiller). Its sole award was for Best Screenplay.


A bullying and smug bachelor, Professor Henry Higgins (Leslie Howard) of phonetics and linguistics makes a bet with Colonel George Pickering (Scott Sunderland) that he can turn an impetuous Cockney 'guttersnipe' flower girl from Convent Garden, Eliza Doolittle (Wendy Hiller in her first screen role) into a lady within six months. To do so, he must transform her thick-accented voice, by coaching her to speak proper English with elocution lessons, teaching her manners, and drilling her so that she will be educated. "We were above that in Convent Garden...I sold flowers. I didn't sell myself. Now you've made a lady of me; I'm not fit to sell anything else." "I'm a good girl, I am."


At a tea party, in her first public testing, she blurts out, "Not bloody likely." However, she makes a spectacular debut at the Ambassador's reception, proving him right. In the process of teaching her, he falls in love with her, although she is attracted by an upper class gentleman named Freddy Eynsford-Hill (David Tree), and finds she cannot return home to Higgins.


In the final line of the film, Henry asks Eliza, "Where the devil are my slippers, Eliza








George Bernard Shaw's "Pygmalion"



, depicts the relationships between gender and social status. It reveals the story of a young, lower class, flower girl, who wants nothing more than to become a lady.


The character of Professor Higgins is introduced as a higher class, sexist individual. He agrees to teach the young girl, Eliza, to become a sophisticated, proper speaking lady. To Eliza, this sounds like an irresistible chance of becoming a lady. However, in Higgins eyes, he's simply teaching her enough to pass her off as a Royal Duchess, through the perfection of her English.


This book undergoes the common theme of "the developing butterfly", with the character starting out in the gutter and integrating her way into becoming a beautiful, proper, mature speaking lady. Although Eliza progresses somewhat throughout the play, she continues to remain within the walls of the lower class status. Similarly, Henry Higgins remains consistent with his arrogant, disliked attitude.


As the reader may not anticipate, Shaw does not follow the typical storyline of the woman and the man of the opposite lives, who end up falling in love with each other. Contrarily, Eliza remains strong, refusing to fall for any sense of false hope, and the lack of respect given by Higgins. She persists and regardless of Higgins' continuous begging, she stays with Freddy.


The reading of this story is somewhat enjoyable and interesting, if the unpredictable, non-traditional storyline is appealing to you, as a reader. I would recommend this book to people who enjoy these types of storylines of the encountered struggles between the lower class individuals and their constant strives to be recognized as anything but lower class.



This performance of Shaw's perceptive comedy sparkles with wit and scintillating characterizations. Outstanding performances by the entire company, especially the actors portraying major characters, contribute to the vitality of this production. As her cockney accent gradually gives way to refined, articulate sentences, Shannon Cochran makes us believe in Eliza's transformation from flower girl to cultured lady. Nicholas Rudall artfully captures the self-centered swagger and joie de vivre of Eliza's father. Nicholas Pennell intelligently portrays the egotistical Professor Higgins. Basic sound effects are all that's necessary to create a context for this drama. The adult or high-school-age listener will find this audio production the next best thing to being there. R.M. (Harper Audio offers a Caedmon full cast performance with Michael Redgrave et al.) (c)AudioFile, Portland, Maine --This text refers to the Audio Cassette edition.



Midwest Book Review


One of Shaw's best works, Pygmalion is a perceptive comedy of wit and wisdom about the unique relationship between a spunky cockney flower-girl and her irascible speech professor. The flower girl Eliza Doolittle teaches the egotistical phonetics professor Henry Higgins that to be a lady means more than just learning to speak like one. The performance by the L. A. Theatre Works is technically flawless and a world-class performance of a theatrical classic.




Pygmalion centers on a woman who cannot speak to save her life. She is the most interesting of the three main characters but also the worst to focus on. She is boring to the point of tears. She is poor, hungry, and happy. It is a typical underdog story where two rich and powerful men who happen to be specialists in her area of need -language-happen upon her in a gloomy British rain. Surprised? I was not. Shaw cut right to the point; after all, it is a short play. I do not blame Shaw for making it short, more of Higgins and I would have put the play down.


Should we try to pinpoint why the two men, more so Higgins, decide to tutor and to change Eliza, we come across purely selfish motives. Eliza sells flowers on the street in order to feed herself, and later goes to Higgins to learn proper English in order to become a shop-owner. Higgins wants to change her into a proper girl in order to prove that he is the greatest linguistics tutor, also, to win a bet...how egocentric. Selfish acts drive this play along.


Here, the class struggle also comes into play as Eliza must not only refrain from using the only language she knows, but must change the way in which she holds herself in front of society. Shaw wrote Eliza's character very precisely to have individual dignity and determination to help her achieve her goals. The one thing I liked.


The play is about adaptation and transformation. Eliza's incredible strength moves the play along more quickly despite Higgins' pompous attitude slowing it down. Then again, without the diametrically opposed characters the play would not work.


Interesting class struggle and realistic language effort but overall, just a so-so read. Shaw has a good point: it takes effort to move up to bourgeoisie. He has all the right characters: a poor, pretty girl with a desire to learn, a snotty old Professor who is full of himself and a rich gentleman to provide the budget. Unfortunately, and perhaps due to the year I was born, the generation I grew up in and my penchant for sex and scandal, I found it rather dry. I am glad I read it, but will likely not pick it up again.



Pygmalion, the romantic comedy written by George Bernard Shaw, shows people the various social roles and obstacles that existed in London in the early 1900's. The story unfolds with Mr. Higgins, a cunning linguist, who places a bet with his fellow comrade, Colonel Pickering, saying he would be able to transform Eliza Doolittle, a cockney speaking, street vending peasant, into a respectable young lady, fit to attend an ambassador's party and not be noticed as a person of a lower class. Eliza, personally willing to take the challenge on for her own benefit, works with Higgins over a number of weeks and is ultimately able to drop her accent and speak like a upper-class English lady.



This story illustrates that though there is a social hierarchy in London at the time, those with the ambition and tenacity to jump social stratas have the opportunities and are able to succeed in doing so. Once in this position however, some tend to question their place in this class and whether they fit in with the mainstream doings that are found with that status. With confidence and support, Eliza's role shows that there is indeed room to grow, learn, and adapt to a new culture.



I think this play is a great read today because it still relates to our society on a whole. People find even now, the unfortunate settings up of a class system within North America. It's easy to relate, though the reader may not be the flower seller in the street, they may be the immigrant learning to speak English to gain a job and financial security for example. The role of class structures made this play relevant in reading it in the past, at the present moment, and will continue to make it worth reading in the future.




George Bernard Shaw's 1912 play Pygmalion is a near perfect representation of society in general. Although written nearly a full century ago, the differences in class and gender ring true even in today's modern world. Inspired by a myth of ancient Greece, Pygmalion focuses around the unique relationship between two very different individuals, Eliza Doolittle and Henry Higgins. Eliza is a poor, uneducated flower seller in the slums of England whereas Higgins is a renowned and quite well off professor of linguistics. The relationship between the two is initiated by each character's own desires for self betterment. Eliza wishes to become "a lady", so as to open her own flower shop and Higgins takes Eliza as a sort of project, hoping to pass her off as a royal dutchess simply by improving her English.



A story of transformation, or at least the attempt of, Pygmalion proves to be ultimately unsatisfying, despite its sophisticated structure. The main characters of the play come off as hopelessly pathetic, Eliza in her primitive dialect and low social status, and Higgins with his sexist attitude and outspoken opinions. The professor, arguably the protagonist of the play, grows consistently harder to like as the play progresses. He willingly showcases his arrogance and disrespect not only for the opposite sex but for those lower than him. The ending of the play also leaves the reader, or viewer for that matter, with a sense of incompleteness. One naturally expects an epiphany to be had, where the players realize their faults and strive to right them. Such is not the case. Also, the relationship between Eliza and Higgins leads the reader to expect a romance to occur, although once again such is not the case. The play ends arbitrarily leaving the audience to make up their own minds. Although it is reported that Shaw ended his play like this on purpose, as a deliberate attack on the "****** cutter" endings that audiences so easily predicted, the purpose proves to be a failure as far as entertainment goes. Audiences desire a certain degree of closure where loose ends are tied up. However, the dialogue and stage business of Pygmalion is witty and clever, and the message of the play is representative of every person's inner quest for self improvement.









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قديم 10-19-2010, 06:33 PM   #5 (permalink)
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Pygmalion


One of the most entertaining and best-loved modern British plays, Pygmalion is intriguing for its social commentary and endearing for its love story. In this play, Henry Higgins, an upper-middle-class gentleman of leisure, transforms Eliza Doolittle, a member of the working poor, by training her in language and manners.


The title comes from the Greek myth of Pygmalion, a sculptor who created a statue of surpassing beauty; at his request, the gods animated the statue as Galatea. The myth is updated, and substantially altered, by Shaw; instead of a statue, Galatea is Eliza Dolittle, a Covent Garden flower-girl, whose accent immediately marks her out as from the very bottom of the English class structure. Pygmalion is represented by Henry Higgins, who is an expert on accents and pronunciation, and who undertakes to transform her speech so that she can be taken for a duchess at a society party.


The play concentrates on the comedy of the early lessons, and the early attempts to pass Eliza off into society. Shaw makes some effort to avoid sentimentality - the fact that despite the title Henry and Eliza don't end up falling in love is an example - and his lead could with profit have been followed by those who adapted Pygmalion as the musical My Fair Lady. However, Shaw suffers from a sort of non-romantic sentimentality, as can be seen from the Epilogue, which tells the later stories of the characters. This is about success through personal endeavour - Eliza ends up setting up a flower shop with her upper class but poor husband, studying accounting and making a good living. In the cynical 1990s, this seems almost as unbelievable as the romance.


Of all of Shaw's plays, Pygmalion is without the doubt the most beloved and popularly received, if not the most significant in literary terms. Several film versions have been made of the play, and it has even been adapted into a musical. In fact, writing the screenplay for the film version of 1938 helped Shaw to become the first and only man ever to win the much coveted Double: the Nobel Prize for literature and an Academy Award. Shaw wrote the part of Eliza in Pygmalion for the famous actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell, with whom Shaw was having a prominent affair at the time that had set all of London abuzz. The aborted romance between Professor Higgins and Eliza Doolittle reflects Shaw's own love life, which was always peppered with enamored and beautiful women, with whom he flirted outrageously but with whom he almost never had any further relations. For example, he had a long marriage to Charlotte Payne-Townsend in which it is well known that he never touched her once. The fact that Shaw was quietly a member of the British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology, an organization whose core members were young men agitating for homosexual liberation, might or might not inform the way that Higgins would rather focus his passions on literature or science than on women. That Higgins was a representation of Pygmalion, the character from the famous story of Ovid's ****morphoses who is the very embodiment of male love for the female form, makes Higgins sexual disinterest all the more compelling. Shaw is too consummate a performer and too smooth in his self- presentation for us to neatly dissect his sexual background; these lean biographical facts, however, do support the belief that Shaw would have an interest in exploding the typical structures of standard fairy tales.



Pygmalion is a perceptive comedy of wit and wisdom about the unique relationship between a spunky cockney flower-girl and her irascible speech professor. The flower girl Eliza Doolittle teaches the egotistical phonetics professor Henry Higgins that to be a lady means more than just learning to speak like one. Based on classical myth, Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion plays on the complex business of human relationships in a social world. Phonetics Professor Henry Higgins tutors the very Cockney Eliza Doolittle, not only in the refinement of speech, but also in the refinement of her manner. When the end result produces a very ladylike Miss Doolittle, the lessons learned become much more far reaching. The successful musical My Fair Lady was based on this Bernard Shaw classic.



George Bernard Shaw's "Pygmalion" , depicts the relationships between gender and social status. It reveals the story of a young, lower class, flower girl, who wants nothing more than to become a lady. The character of Professor Higgins is introduced as a higher class, sexist individual. He agrees to teach the young girl, Eliza, to become a sophisticated, proper speaking lady. To Eliza, this sounds like an irresistible chance of becoming a lady. However, in Higgins eyes, he's simply teaching her enough to pass her off as a Royal Duchess, through the perfection of her English.


This book undergoes the common theme of "the developing butterfly", with the character starting out in the gutter and integrating her way into becoming a beautiful, proper, mature speaking lady. Although Eliza progresses somewhat throughout the play, she continues to remain within the walls of the lower class status. Similarly, Henry Higgins remains consistent with his arrogant, disliked attitude.



Pygmalion centers on a woman who cannot speak to save her life. She is the most interesting of the three main characters but also the worst to focus on. She is boring to the point of tears. She is poor, hungry, and happy. It is a typical underdog story where two rich and powerful men who happen to be specialists in her area of need -language-happen upon her in a gloomy British rain. Surprised? I was not. Shaw cut right to the point; after all, it is a short play. I do not blame Shaw for making it short, more of Higgins and I would have put the play down.



Should we try to pinpoint why the two men, more so Higgins, decide to tutor and to change Eliza, we come across purely selfish motives. Eliza sells flowers on the street in order to feed herself, and later goes to Higgins to learn proper English in order to become a shop-owner. Higgins wants to change her into a proper girl in order to prove that he is the greatest linguistics tutor, also, to win a bet...how egocentric. Selfish acts drive this play along.



Here, the class struggle also comes into play as Eliza must not only refrain from using the only language she knows, but must change the way in which she holds herself in front of society. Shaw wrote Eliza's character very precisely to have individual dignity and determination to help her achieve her goals. The one thing I liked.



The play is about adaptation and transformation. Eliza's incredible strength moves the play along more quickly despite Higgins' pompous attitude slowing it down. Then again, without the diametrically opposed characters the play would not work.


Interesting class struggle and realistic language effort but overall, just a so-so read. Shaw has a good point: it takes effort to move up to bourgeoisie. He has all the right characters: a poor, pretty girl with a desire to learn, a snotty old Professor who is full of himself and a rich gentleman to provide the budget.


Pygmalion derives its name from the famous story in Ovid's ****morphoses, in which Pygmalion, disgusted by the loose and shameful lives of the women of his era, decides to live alone and unmarried. With wondrous art, he creates a beautiful statue more perfect than any living woman. The more he looks upon her, the more deeply he falls in love with her, until he wishes that she were more than a statue. This statue is Galatea. Lovesick, Pygmalion goes to the temple of the goddess Venus and prays that she give him a lover like his statue; Venus is touched by his love and brings Galatea to life. When Pygmalion returns from Venus' temple and kisses his statue, he is delighted to find that she is warm and soft to the touch--"The maiden felt the kisses, blushed and, lifting her timid eyes up to the light, saw the sky and her lover at the same time" (Frank Justus Miller, trans.).



Myths such as this are fine enough when studied through the lens of centuries and the buffer of translations and editions, but what happens when one tries to translate such an allegory into Victorian England? That is just what George Bernard Shaw does in his version of the Pygmalion myth. In doing so, he exposes the inadequacy of myth and of romance in several ways. For one, he deliberately twists the myth so that the play does not conclude as euphorically or conveniently, hanging instead in unconventional ambiguity. Next, he mires the story in the sordid and mundane whenever he gets a chance. Wherever he can, the characters are seen to be belabored by the trivial details of life like napkins and neckties, and of how one is going to find a taxi on a rainy night. These noisome details keep the story grounded and decidedly less romantic. Finally, and most significantly, Shaw challenges the possibly insidious assumptions that come with the Pygmalion myth, forcing us to ask the following: Is the male artist the absolute and perfect being who has the power to create woman in the image of his desires? Is the woman necessarily the inferior subject who sees her lover as her sky? Can there only ever be sexual/romantic relations between a man and a woman? Does beauty reflect virtue? Does the artist love his creation, or merely the art that brought that creation into being?


Famous for writing "talky" plays in which barely anything other than witty repartee takes center stage (plays that the most prominent critics of his day called non-plays), Shaw finds in Pygmalion a way to turn the talk into action, by hinging the fairy tale outcome of the flower girl on precisely how she talks. In this way, he draws our attention to his own art, and to his ability to create, through the medium of speech, not only Pygmalion's Galatea, but Pygmalion himself. More powerful than Pygmalion, on top of building up his creations, Shaw can take them down as well by showing their faults and foibles. In this way, it is the playwright alone, and not some divine will, who breathes life into his characters. While Ovid's Pygmalion may be said to have idolized his Galatea, Shaw's relentless and humorous honesty humanizes these archetypes, and in the process brings drama and art itself to a more contemporarily relevant and human level.



In the original final act Eliza leaves Higgins and we see him alone on the stage, we don't get to see any wedding but Eliza declares she would marry Freddy. The way Freddy acts and the way he treats her makes her think of him as an appropriate husband. She can compare between Higgins with his rude attitude and carelessness and between Freddy who is a real gentleman, tender and cheerful. He loves and respects her for who she is and pays no attention to her social class or her level of education.



The final act brings together many of the themes that we have examined in the other acts, such as what constitutes the determinants of social standing, the fault of taking people too literally, or for granted, the emptiness of higher English society, etc. With regard to the first of these themes, Eliza makes the impressively astute observation that "the difference between a lady and a flower girl is not how she behaves, but how she's treated." The line packs double meaning by stating clearly that what is needed is not just one's affectation of nobility, while her delivery is proof of the statement itself as she has grown enough to make such an intelligent claim. Quite contrary to the dresses, the vowels, the consonants, the jewelry (significantly, only hired) that she learned to put on, probably the greatest thing she has gained from this experience is the self-respect that Pickering endowed her with from the first time he called her "Miss Doolittle." In contrast to the "self-respect" that Eliza has learned is the "respectability" that Doolittle and his woman have gained, a respectability that has "broke all the spirit out of her." While respectability can be learned, and is what Higgins has taught Eliza, self-respect is something far more authentic, and helps rather than hinders the growth of an independent spirit. Alfred Doolittle makes the unmitigated claim that acquiring the wealth to enter this society has "ruined me. Destroyed my happiness. Tied me up and delivered me into the hands of middle class morality." Higgins' haughty proclamation--"You will jolly soon see whether she has an idea that I haven't put into her head or a word that I haven't put into her mouth."--mistakes the external for the internal, and betrays too much unfounded pride, which is the ultimate cause of his misunderstanding with Eliza.


The greatest problem that people have with Pygmalion is its highly ambivalent conclusion, in which the audience is left frustrated if it wants to see the typical consummation of the hero and heroine one expects in a romance--which is what the play advertises itself to be after all. Most people like to believe that Eliza's talk about Freddy and leaving for good is only womanly pride speaking, but that she will ultimately return to Higgins. The first screenplay of the movie, written without Shaw's approval, has Eliza buy Higgins a necktie. In the London premier of the play, Higgins tosses Eliza a bouquet before she departs. A contemporary tour of the play in America had Eliza return to ask, "What size?" Other films of the play either show Higgins pleading with Eliza to stay with him, or Higgins following her to church. Doubtless, everyone wanted to romanticize the play to a degree greater than that which the playwright presented it. All this makes us question why Shaw is so insistent and abrupt in his conclusion.


However, in an epilogue that Shaw wrote after too many directors tried to adapt the conclusion into something more romantic, he writes, "The rest of the story need not be shown in action, and indeed, would hardly need telling if our imaginations were not so enfeebled by their lazy dependence on the ready-mades and reach-me-downs of the rag shop in which Romance keeps its stock of 'happy endings to misfit all stories." He goes on to deliver a detailed and considered argument for why Higgins would never marry Eliza, and vice versa. For one, Higgins has too much admiration for his mother to find any other woman even halfway comparable, and even "had Mrs. Higgins died, there would still have been Milton and the Universal Alphabet." To Shaw's mind, if Eliza marries anyone at all, it must be Freddy--"And that is just what Eliza did." The epilogue goes on to give a dreary account of their married life and faltering career as the owners of a flower and vegetable shop (an ironic treatment of the typical "happily ever after" nonsense) in which Freddy and Eliza must take accounting and penmanship classes to really become useful members of society. One can see this whole play as an intentional deconstruction of the genre of Romance, and of the myth of Pygmalion as well.



Towards the end of the play Eliza instinctually knows that Higgins did not of the making of a married man (mainly due to his idealization of his mother), although Shaw stands by his opinion that Eliza would not marry him even if there were no mother-rivals, that she would still refuse the marriage.


The play ends with an uncertainty to the plot, whether or not Eliza will marry Higgins, however this is cleared by the epilogue in which he states reasons against such a commitment. Instead Eliza marries Freddy Eynsford Hill. Some may predict she was driven away from Higgins, with his abrupt sense of being, using sentences involving Eliza while in conversation with Colonel pickering, "Thank god its all over" says Higgins without realizing the hurt he is causing her with the miserable silences.


At the end of the Shaw quotes "people in all directions have assumed for no other reason than that she became the heroine of romance, that she must have married the hero of it". One can only form the conclusion that the ending to the play is suitable if only from learning of Shaw's own opinions and attitudes to feminist ideologies. This is because if it were to end in the obvious way (whereby Eliza would marry Higgins) Shaw would be failing his own play as someone with knowledge of women's attitudes would know that a person like Eliza would never marry Higgins.


If Shaw were to take into consideration the audience expectation he would have ended with Eliza marrying Higgins. The play is essentially a comedy so therefore one could argue that as an experienced play write he should have ended it in a way that conforms to the comedy genre, so therefore the audience can be forgiven for expecting what is an obvious ending.


The ending of Pygmalion is serious and in some ways realistic, not at all in keeping with the light hearted and cheerful generic conventions of a comedy. Therefore the audience cannot help but feel somewhat let down that their need for the fairy tale ending (the typical consummation of the hero and heroine) goes unfulfilled. This was distinctive of Shaw (who was a lover of paradox) to have provided such an anti-romantic conclusion to the play. His own need to write a realistic and informed ending was more important.


It is not entirely true to someone with feminine instinct that Eliza would marry Higgins. She is in a situation whereby there is opportunity to choose a suitable spouse rather than being pressured into marrying somebody who clearly would not fulfill her and meet emotional needs as a husband should. A person with a feminine instinct would realize this is a far more acceptable conclusion to the play.


If she had married Higgins she would have lived a completely different life. It's not just that she would be financially secure, but she would have a better chance in glazing and approving her conducts and manners, as he would take care of her education and help her to overcome any difficulties. This is what we see in the film version. After she leaves the stage she comes back to him, hoping that they could work it out.


In 1938, a film version of the stage play was released,[1] starring Leslie Howard as Higgins, Wendy Hiller as Eliza, Wilfrid Lawson as her father Alfred Doolittle, Scott Sunderland as Colonel George Pickering, and David Tree as Freddy Eynsford-Hill. It was adapted to film by Shaw, W.P. Lipscomb, Cecil Lewis, Ian Dalrymple, and Anatole de Grunwald from the Shaw play, and directed by Anthony Asquith and Leslie Howard. The movie was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture.The play was the basis for the musical play and film My Fair Lady.[2]


My Fair Lady is based on George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, one of the favorite plays of all time. In this famous play, Shaw examines the influence of training and education on success and social class. He uses Eliza to show that training and education can help someone rise from humble beginnings to live a happier, more successful, and more confident life.


My Fair Lady was Warner Brothers' most popular musical romantic comedy. It was also their most expensive film up to that time, totaling in at $17 million. Part of the reason for the expense was that Warner Brothers had to pay $5.5 million to purchase the film rights to the already popular Broadway hit. My Fair Lady ended up being one of the top five biggest hits of 1964. With clever lyrics and memorable tunes combined with amazing sets, fantastic costumes, and great leads and supporting cast, the lavish film was a sure winner from the beginning.


The play, the stage musical, and the film musical have different endings. At the end of the play, Eliza leaves Higgins to marry the aristocrat Freddy Eynsford-Hill. Shaw, annoyed by the tendency of audiences, actors, and even directors to seek 'romantic' re-interpretations of his ending, later wrote an essay for inclusion with subsequent editions in which he explained precisely why it was impossible for the story to end with Higgins and Eliza getting together. In the stage musical, this is left unresolved, and the final scene is of a lonely Higgins. Both the 1938 film and the filmed version of the musical add a final scene with both of them apparently about to reconcile.


In My Fair Lady, although the final confrontation between Higgins and Eliza has been altered and subjected to major cuts, most of the balance of Shaw’s brilliant dialogue involving them has survived miraculously intact. Additionally, drawing largely on references in the Shaw play, Moss Hart and Alan Jay Lerner with the support of Fritz Loews’s magnificent music, have given their musical a smooth flow and expansiveness which are to be treasured.


Before the first scene of My Fair Lady, viewers sit through an overture where all the credits are shown on a background of beautiful flowers. Beautiful music allows viewers to begin to get the feeling of the film and its characters before the movie even begins. These beautiful, bright-colored spring flowers become the flowers that line the entrance to the Covent Opera House.


My Fair Lady begins as members of the upper echelons of society leave the opera house. As they come out of the building, it begins to rain and the upper class and lower class people mingle. As young Freddy Eynsford-Hill tries to get a cab for his mother, he bumps into Eliza, and causes her to drop her flowers. Eliza begins screaming about how he has ruined her wares and cost her a day's wages. Colonel Pickering comes on the scene and gives Eliza some coins without receiving any flowers in return.


Eliza Doolittle is a low-class, uncultured flower girl. To Professor Henry Higgins and other persons of his stature, her speech is painful and her actions uncouth. Viewers cringe and laugh as they listen to Eliza's outrageous and unimaginable Cockney accent that distinguishes her so hideously from the upper classes.


Eliza's emotional well-being is also not at all stable in the beginning of the movie. She has a fear of being observed that reveals her self-consciousness. Additionally, when she feels uncomfortable, she makes hasty outbursts at whoever happens to be around. However, we see her grow and change throughout the course of the movie, until she is a lady both in actions and in her mental and emotional states.


Throughout the movie, we see social classes taking two forms, either high class or low class. In the time period in which the movie is set, middle class is not an option. Higgins' experiment is primarily focused on the possibility that social class has less to do with money or connections and more to do with proper education, training, and manners.


By using low-class Eliza as his pupil, Higgins (and Pickering) can prove once and for all that anyone can become a lady if only she has the proper information and training. By being trained as a lady and having lived on the streets, Eliza is able to transcend the requirements and standards of both classes, but that sadly leaves her in a "no-man's land" from which she has little ability to escape. Love also comes in many places and at unexpected times.


My Fair Lady was a throwback to happier times in the world of movie musicals. Companies were trying to cash in on the former popularity of musicals with such shows as My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, and Mary Poppins. Needless to say, the strategy worked. These blockbuster musicals along with others brought in the crowds that had been missing in recent years for some of the studios. Musicals offer the advantage of being able to play out life with added musical commentary and asides. The music enhances the emotion behind the words and actions of the characters. Additionally, the characters can express themselves through their unique songs and dances.


Although this musical is based on the stage play Pygmalion, much of the movie's power relies on the musical numbers. Expressions and emotions are portrayed through music, lyrics, and dancing. Competition is seen in several ways throughout this movie. Almost every character is attempting to win some type of competition, either with themselves or with another person or force.


Higgins is trying to win the competition and wager put to him by Colonel Pickering. He seeks to make Eliza into a lady in just a few short weeks. In order to prove that he is truly the best in his field, he must meet this ultimate challenge. However, he is also competing against himself to see if he really is as smart and determined as he believes himself to be. If he fails in this task, he has failed in his profession and in his life. Eliza is also competing against herself. She spends her time trying to prove that a lowly flower girl from the streets can indeed become a lady and a successful, thriving member of the community.


The phonograph represents a number of things throughout the movie. In the beginning, the phonograph is the tool by which Higgins examines a number of linguistic patterns. After Eliza moves in, Higgins uses the phonograph to train her in her speech and language habits. After Eliza has learned to speak correctly, the phonograph symbolizes her freedom and independence as well as her achievement in changing her long-standing habits. Finally, in the last scene, the phonograph represents Higgins' desire to have Eliza in his life, as he listens to it after he arrives home from arguing with her.


Of necessity, the musical foreshortens the roles of several of the supporting characters, eliminating much of their dimension and humor in the process. However, in this production of the play, in grand ensemble style, we are presented with a gallery of richly amusing and often moving individuals from differing social classes. Each is amazingly well drawn by Shaw, and the performances evoke the richness in the writing.


Will Henry Higgins and his fair Eliza get married? Or will they be fellow bachelors? Or will Eliza hitch up with nice, but lightweight Freddy? Or will Eliza go off .... Well, Bernard Shaw did provide some pretty strong answers in an epilogue-essay, published about three years after Pygmalion was first produced. However, he may be wrong. Just maybe, his essay was just a misguided reaction to public perceptions about the play which rubbed him the wrong way. However, before checking out his epilogue, you had best get over to the Shakespeare Theatre in Madison and, with the help of Bonnie J. Monte and her exceptional cast, decide for yourself. For very good measure, you will almost surely have a delightful time.


According to the Epilogue Show states that there is to be no romantic ‘happy ending’ of a conventional kind. Eliza will not be marrying Higgins because her instinct is all against that. Higgins is too wrapped up in admiration of his mother and in his work. He is twenty years older than her and always wants to be superior to her and dominate her. On the other hand ,Freddy is her age , he also is a gentleman and he loves her. Unfortunately , he has no money , no occupation and is not clever enough to earn a living . At Colonel Pickering’s suggestion they open a flower shop (funded at first by him) which is not a commercial success at first, but eventually flourishes .Mrs. Eynsford Hill and Clara have no objections to the marriage.


As Shaw tells us in his epilogue, this was how the story really ended. It was a romance only in the wider sense of the word. So much, then, for any of us who like to hang on to Higgins' final confident air of the original text and believe there could have been the "happy ending" which the author despised.


One forms the impression that this production by Richard Mathews - his first as temporary director at the theatre - has been much influenced by the epilogue. There is in the main characterizations a foretaste of what is to come and Eliza, in her final verbal battle with Higgins, conveys more confidence and independence than I have felt before. Ann Firbank has brought great beauty to the role and a considerable understanding of it, but the progression of her accent is hardly in time with her development, visually, as a lady. Her flower girl speech was common, but soft rather than raucous, and one felt last night that Higgins's task was not to be so difficult after all. At Mrs. Higgins's "At Home" she was superb, wringing the comedy from the beautifully-spoken account of how her aunt was "done in", but by the end of the play she was too natural where she should have been too perfect.


Alan Jay Lerner, probably the most successful adapter of Shaw's Pygmalion, commented: "Shaw explains how Eliza ends not with Higgins but with Freddy and—Shaw and Heaven forgive me!—I am not certain he is right." Many critics would agree with this sentiment. A recent analysis of the play goes so far as to dismiss the Epilogue as a bit of Shavian frivolity and to cite the "happy ending" Shaw himself wrote for Pascal's film as the proper denouement of a play which is persuasively categorized by one critic as a play which follows "the classic pattern of satirical comedy" [Milton Crane mPMLA, vol.66, 1956].


Shaw concludes his work in his "Epilogue." He tells what happens after Doolittle's wedding. He states that it is likely that the heroine of the romance would marry the hero, but this would not be in keeping with the characterizations. That Liza is remade is plausible, but that she would marry Higgins is unthinkable.


Eliza is fond of Higgins and of Pickering and them of her .She fits in well at Wimpole Street, a household that needs a ladylike woman. In my opinion They can support and advise her. She can’t go back to her old life(her speech and manner does not fit in there any longer) or marry a man like her father.


Pygmalion is one of Shaw's most popular plays as well as one of his most straightforward ones. The form has none of the complexity that we find in Heartbreak House or Saint Joan, nor are the ideas in Pygmalion nearly as profound as the ideas in any of Shaw's other major works. Yet the ending of Pygmalion provokes an interesting controversy among critics. Higgins and Eliza do not marry at the end of the written text, while the play as it is usually produced often does reconcile the two main characters. Obviously many directors and many readers feel that the apparent unromantic ending is an arbitrary bit of sarcasm appended to the play merely for spite.....


As the reader may not anticipate, Shaw does not follow the typical storyline of the woman and the man of the opposite lives, who end up falling in love with each other. Contrarily, Eliza remains strong, refusing to fall for any sense of false hope, and the lack of respect given by Higgins. She persists and regardless of Higgins' continuous begging, she stays with Freddy.

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غلطه الايام غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-19-2010, 06:35 PM   #6 (permalink)
غلطه الايام
رومانسي مبتديء
 
الصورة الرمزية غلطه الايام
 
طيب الله وقتكم هاه محمد معليف ايش هذي التكمله انا دار ي انك ما كملتها بس السؤال الان انا مشغول lolllllllllllll
ممكن بعدين الله لا يسيأك

حتى ممكن لو ما نجتمع

The reading of this story is somewhat enjoyable and interesting, if the unpredictable, non-traditional storyline is appealing to you, as a reader. I would recommend this book to people who enjoy these types of storylines of the encountered struggles between the lower class individuals and their constant strives to be recognized as anything but lower class.This story illustrates that though there is a social hierarchy in London at the time, those with the ambition and tenacity to jump social strata’s have the opportunities and are able to succeed in doing so. Once in this position however, some tend to question their place in this class and whether they fit in with the mainstream doings that are found with that status. With confidence and support, Eliza's role shows that there is indeed room to grow, learn, and adapt to a new culture.



I think this play is a great read today because it still relates to our society on a whole. People find even now, the unfortunate settings up of a class system within North America. It's easy to relate, though the reader may not be the flower seller in the street, they may be the immigrant learning to speak English to gain a job and financial security for example. The role of class structures made this play relevant in reading it in the past, at the present moment, and will continue to make it worth reading in the future.


In fact, George Bernard Shaw's 1912 play Pygmalion is a near perfect representation of society in general. Although written nearly a full century ago, the differences in class and gender ring true even in today's modern world. Inspired by a myth of ancient Greece, Pygmalion focuses around the unique relationship between two very different individuals, Eliza Doolittle and Henry Higgins. Eliza is a poor, uneducated flower seller in the slums of England whereas Higgins is a renowned and quite well off professor of linguistics. The relationship between the two is initiated by each character's own desires for self betterment. Eliza wishes to become "a lady", so as to open her own flower shop and Higgins takes Eliza as a sort of project, hoping to pass her off as a royal duchess simply by improving her English.



In brief, A story of transformation, or at least the attempt of, Pygmalion proves to be ultimately unsatisfying, despite its sophisticated structure. The main characters of the play come off as hopelessly pathetic, Eliza in her primitive dialect and low social status, and Higgins with his sexist attitude and outspoken opinions. The professor, arguably the protagonist of the play, grows consistently harder to like as the play progresses. He willingly showcases his arrogance and disrespect not only for the opposite sex but for those lower than him. The ending of the play also leaves the reader, or viewer for that matter, with a sense of incompleteness. One naturally expects an epiphany to be had, where the players realize their faults and strive to right them. Such is not the case. Also, the relationship between Eliza and Higgins leads the reader to expect a romance to occur, although once again such is not the case. The play ends arbitrarily leaving the audience to make up their own minds. Although it is reported that Shaw ended his play like this on purpose, as a deliberate attack on the "****** cutter" endings that audiences so easily predicted, the purpose proves to be a failure as far as entertainment goes. Audiences desire a certain degree of closure where loose ends are tied up. However, the dialogue and stage business of Pygmalion is witty and clever, and the message of the play is representative of every person's inner quest for self improvement. And Whether we agree with Shaw or not, we can't deny that the play is a wonderful depiction of reality and romance








Pygmalion


Pygmalion is a play written by Bernard Shaw who was born in 1856 in Dublin, Ireland in a lower-Middle class family. "He's an Irish dramatist, literary critic, a socialist spokesman, and a leading figure in the 20th century theater. Shaw was a freethinker, defender of women's rights, and advocate of equality of income. In 1925 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Shaw accepted the honor but refused the money". (books & writers, http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/, 2003).



This play discusses some vital and crucial issues about social rank, human values and relation between genders. It describes the way in which some people consider they are superior from upper-class, and how they can convert and control people's lives for the reason that they come from a better social class. Pygmalion's theme of equality explains the gender role, also it analysis the developing of the main characters which are used as literacy device to explain ideas and belief, relationships and feeling. The theme of this play is talking about how do the divisions of social classes become an issue in this act? How is class differences embodied in the people's different treatments of the flower girl. How is language related to class divisions?



This play illustrates the difference and tension between the upper and lower class a basic belief of the period was that a person is born into a class and that no one can move from one class to another. However, Shaw believed that personality isn’t defined by birth. But social change can be achieved if you really believe in yourself (self-confidence). As to the play, the obstacles between classes aren’t natural and can be broken down.



Pygmalion was written during the period were people demanding for their equal rights, and as for women, their demands was equality in suffrage, education, work. Unfortunately, during that period women kept in a "domestic sphere", they belong to their family, inside their home. On the contrary of men public lives. Women didn't take part in politics, universities (education field) and everything that needed intelligence.



Shaw believed that the dramatically role is "to force the public to reconsider its morals' (resources book, p199). In Shaw's play Pygmalion, which concentrated on two concepts the social class and gender approach by illustrating the men whom undertake to keep women relaying on them and under their command, but finally he supports the equality and how women should be mindful and should ask to get her rights.


Shaw created Higgins in order to reflect his ideas. Higgins was phonetic. He effected this amazing transformation by teaching Eliza who came from the class-work society sells flower in the streets, into a lady to speak correctly and beautifully. Higgins was the typical male shows his superiority and to woman, and show how the society's consider of woman. He benefits from Eliza and treated her as an object not as a human being who wants to learn, he makes merciless on of her. His rudeness was clear from the first meeting, like when she said "well, if you were gentlemen, you might ask me to site down, I think. Higgins answered Pickering: Shall we ask this baggage to sit down, or shall we through her out of the window?" (Pygmalion, p 26). Higgins and Pickering made a bet on Eliza by transform her who was cockney speaking into a woman as poised and well spoken as a duchess in a matter of months. He started by having Mrs. Pearce, his housekeeper bathe Eliza and give her new cloth, and getting rid of her old cloth by burning them without taking her opinion. Higgins trained Eliza to speak properly, but he was showing his superiority and power on her, and punishing her when she made mistakes with no sympathy and mercy. He didn't care for Eliza's reputation when his mother asked him on what terms she is staying with them he didn't care he said "well, dash me if I do! I've had to work at the girl every…so forth" (Pygmalion, p. 64-65). On other hand Pickering the linguist of Indian dialects, agreed to cover the costs of the experiment, always treating her like a lady.



The wager is definitely won, but Higgins and Pickering are now bored with the project, he felt like Eliza as a prize wife who likes to transfer woman to lady duchess, by putting her beside him in a position as if she is an accessories wearing a jewel to let people see what this man made. Higgins focuses upon his task (of passing of Eliza as a duchess) with absolute concentration and objectivity. Higgins and Pickering discussed on how they won and succeeded in their mission which caused Eliza to be hurt although she was the one who made all the work. After succeed, Higgins treated Eliza as a maid by giving her order, like asking for his slippers, and when he told her to switch the lights off. She was confused and angry, she throw Higgins' slipper at him in a rage, he felt threatened by this change and get mad when she talks back and faces him, also she returns him the hired jewelry, were Higgins accused her of ingratiated, he didn't like the way she defended herself, he also didn't like her independence, this proved that he is a male chauvinism that after transforming Eliza as a duchess still treated her bad.



Eliza can be seen as a morality character as she struggles to achieve spiritual salvation. The play charts Eliza's spiritual journey from illusion to reality or from the darkness of ignorance to the light of self-awareness. She struggles against the varied temptations and finally achieves self-awareness as a human being. She acquires enough independence of spirit, strength of character and maturity of thought to stand up to Higgins and criticize his way of life.



As for Clara, she was very nervous, when Pickering started talk with her, she start shouting, this shows that the way of thinking of women not only limited in lower class, but also with the middle class, the same as Eliza, who was nervous as well she shouted when Higgins was writing notes she was worried on her integrity, that people might think that she is a prostitute.



In Pygmalion, Shaw presents the classic theme of drama. Nevertheless, in the Pygmalion narrative as told by Ovid in ****morphoses, was described as having horror for women and he thus decides to remain single. Ovid explains that Pygmalion's revolt for women is due to the behavior of the properties. Yet Pygmalion longs for a feminine ideal and is inspired to sculpture an extremely beautiful woman in ivory and name it Galatea. Upon finishing his marvelous piece of sculpture, he clothes the state with colorful garments and adorns it with jewelry, so he fell in love with the statue. In Shaw's play, Higgins' transforms a common flower girl into a graceful lady, like the sculptor Pygmalion in the Ovidian legend carved a beautiful statue out of shapeless ivory. Higgins effects this amazing transformation by teaching Eliza to speak correctly and beautifully. Shaw didn't like the idea that Higgins might end up marring Eliza, because Higgins only love himself and admire his mother, especially when Higgins suggested that Eliza should marry.



Shaw was influenced in Shakespeare's play. "The Taming of the Shrew" and "Pygmalion" discusses the theme of equality, Shaw's characters are inspired by Shakespeare, Shaw also criticized his societies treatment of women, he believed in didactic theater which means it can teach us a lesson, also there are similarities in theme, a man accepts the challenge of transforming a woman. Shaw doesn't believe in physical violence or verbal violence, he rejected male domination over women.



Eliza has been made a lady, regardless of her origins. During that time, the belief that only a man turns a woman into a lady. This is illustrated in Eliza's helplessness and in the way Higgins treats her. The conflict reaches its climax when Higgins suggested that Eliza should marry. As to Eliza's situation, she had to decide between marrying and going out to work, although she was transferred from lower class into higher but still, she should work, to get money.



However, Eliza begins to rebel against Higgins by throwing the slippers at him. That can be seen as a way of release to the other ladies. Eliza's behavior stands for women who struggled for their rights in those days








Pygmalion is a play written by Bernard Shaw who was born in 1856 in Dublin, Ireland in a lower-Middle class family. "He's an Irish dramatist, literary critic, a socialist spokesman, and a leading figure in the 20th century theater. Shaw was a freethinker, defender of women's rights, and advocate of equality of income. In 1925 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Shaw accepted the honor but refused the money". (books & writers, http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/, 2003).


This play discusses some vital and crucial issues about social rank, human values and relation between genders. It describes the way in which some people consider they are superior from upper-class, and how they can convert and control people's lives for the reason that they come from a better social class. Pygmalion's theme of equality explains the gender role, also it analysis the developing of the main characters which are used as literacy device to explain ideas and belief, relationships and feeling. The theme of this play is talking about how do the divisions of social classes become an issue in this act? How is class differences embodied in the people's different treatments of the flower girl. How is language related to class divisions?



This play illustrates the difference and tension between the upper and lower class a basic belief of the period was that a person is born into a class and that no one can move from one class to another. However, Shaw believed that personality isn’t defined by birth. But social change can be achieved if you really believe in yourself (self-confidence). As to the play, the obstacles between classes aren’t natural and can be broken down.



Pygmalion was written during the period were people demanding for their equal rights, and as for women, their demands was equality in suffrage, education, work. Unfortunately, during that period women kept in a "domestic sphere", they belong to their family, inside their home. On the contrary of men public lives. Women didn't take part in politics, universities (education field) and everything that needed intelligence.



Shaw believed that the dramatically role is "to force the public to reconsider its morals' (resources book, p199). In Shaw's play Pygmalion, which concentrated on two concepts the social class and gender approach by illustrating the men whom undertake to keep women relaying on them and under their command, but finally he supports the equality and how women should be mindful and should ask to get her rights.


Shaw created Higgins in order to reflect his ideas. Higgins was phonetic. He effected this amazing transformation by teaching Eliza who came from the class-work society sells flower in the streets, into a lady to speak correctly and beautifully. Higgins was the typical male shows his superiority and to woman, and show how the society's consider of woman. He benefits from Eliza and treated her as an object not as a human being who wants to learn, he makes merciless on of her. His rudeness was clear from the first meeting, like when she said "well, if you were gentlemen, you might ask me to site down, I think. Higgins answered Pickering: Shall we ask this baggage to sit down, or shall we through her out of the window?" (Pygmalion, p 26). Higgins and Pickering made a bet on Eliza by transform her who was cockney speaking into a woman as poised and well spoken as a duchess in a matter of months. He started by having Mrs. Pearce, his housekeeper bathe Eliza and give her new cloth, and getting rid of her old cloth by burning them without taking her opinion. Higgins trained Eliza to speak properly, but he was showing his superiority and power on her, and punishing her when she made mistakes with no sympathy and mercy. He didn't care for Eliza's reputation when his mother asked him on what terms she is staying with them he didn't care he said "well, dash me if I do! I've had to work at the girl every…so forth" (Pygmalion, p. 64-65). On other hand Pickering the linguist of Indian dialects, agreed to cover the costs of the experiment, always treating her like a lady.



The wager is definitely won, but Higgins and Pickering are now bored with the project, he felt like Eliza as a prize wife who likes to transfer woman to lady duchess, by putting her beside him in a position as if she is an accessories wearing a jewel to let people see what this man made. Higgins focuses upon his task (of passing of Eliza as a duchess) with absolute concentration and objectivity. Higgins and Pickering discussed on how they won and succeeded in their mission which caused Eliza to be hurt although she was the one who made all the work. After succeed, Higgins treated Eliza as a maid by giving her order, like asking for his slippers, and when he told her to switch the lights off. She was confused and angry, she throw Higgins' slipper at him in a rage, he felt threatened by this change and get mad when she talks back and faces him, also she returns him the hired jewelry, were Higgins accused her of ingratiated, he didn't like the way she defended herself, he also didn't like her independence, this proved that he is a male chauvinism that after transforming Eliza as a duchess still treated her bad.



Eliza can be seen as a morality character as she struggles to achieve spiritual salvation. The play charts Eliza's spiritual journey from illusion to reality or from the darkness of ignorance to the light of self-awareness. She struggles against the varied temptations and finally achieves self-awareness as a human being. She acquires enough independence of spirit, strength of character and maturity of thought to stand up to Higgins and criticize his way of life.



As for Clara, she was very nervous, when Pickering started talk with her, she start shouting, this shows that the way of thinking of women not only limited in lower class, but also with the middle class, the same as Eliza, who was nervous as well she shouted when Higgins was writing notes she was worried on her integrity, that people might think that she is a prostitute.



In Pygmalion, Shaw presents the classic theme of drama. Nevertheless, in the Pygmalion narrative as told by Ovid in ****morphoses, was described as having horror for women and he thus decides to remain single. Ovid explains that Pygmalion's revolt for women is due to the behavior of the properties. Yet Pygmalion longs for a feminine ideal and is inspired to sculpture an extremely beautiful woman in ivory and name it Galatea. Upon finishing his marvelous piece of sculpture, he clothes the state with colorful garments and adorns it with jewelry, so he fell in love with the statue. In Shaw's play, Higgins' transforms a common flower girl into a graceful lady, like the sculptor Pygmalion in the Ovidian legend carved a beautiful statue out of shapeless ivory. Higgins effects this amazing transformation by teaching Eliza to speak correctly and beautifully. Shaw didn't like the idea that Higgins might end up marring Eliza, because Higgins only love himself and admire his mother, especially when Higgins suggested that Eliza should marry.



Shaw was influenced in Shakespeare's play. "The Taming of the Shrew" and "Pygmalion" discusses the theme of equality, Shaw's characters are inspired by Shakespeare, Shaw also criticized his societies treatment of women, he believed in didactic theater which means it can teach us a lesson, also there are similarities in theme, a man accepts the challenge of transforming a woman. Shaw doesn't believe in physical violence or verbal violence, he rejected male domination over women.



Eliza has been made a lady, regardless of her origins. During that time, the belief that only a man turns a woman into a lady. This is illustrated in Eliza's helplessness and in the way Higgins treats her. The conflict reaches its climax when Higgins suggested that Eliza should marry. As to Eliza's situation, she had to decide between marrying and going out to work, although she was transferred from lower class into higher but still, she should work, to get money.



However, Eliza begins to rebel against Higgins by throwing the slippers at him. That can be seen as a way of release to the other ladies. Eliza's behavior stands for women who struggled for their rights in those days












Pygmalion[/size]



Pygmalion is a play written by Bernard Shaw who was born in 1856 in Dublin, Ireland in a lower-Middle class family. "He's an Irish dramatist, literary critic, a socialist spokesman, and a leading figure in the 20th century theater. Shaw was a freethinker, defender of women's rights, and advocate of equality of income. In 1925 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. Shaw accepted the honor but refused the money". (books & writers, http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/, 2003).





This play discusses some vital and crucial issues about social rank, human values and relation between genders. It describes the way in which some people consider they are superior from upper-class, and how they can convert and control people's lives for the reason that they come from a better social class. Pygmalion's theme of equality explains the gender role, also it analysis the developing of the main characters which are used as literacy device to explain ideas and belief, relationships and feeling. The theme of this play is talking about how do the divisions of social classes become an issue in this act? How is class differences embodied in the people's different treatments of the flower girl. How is language related to class divisions?





This play illustrates the difference and tension between the upper and lower class a basic belief of the period was that a person is born into a class and that no one can move from one class to another. However, Shaw believed that personality isn’t defined by birth. But social change can be achieved if you really believe in yourself (self-confidence). As to the play, the obstacles between classes aren’t natural and can be broken down.





Pygmalion was written during the period were people demanding for their equal rights, and as for women, their demands was equality in suffrage, education, work. Unfortunately, during that period women kept in a "domestic sphere", they belong to their family, inside their home. On the contrary of men public lives. Women didn't take part in politics, universities (education field) and everything that needed intelligence.





Shaw believed that the dramatically role is "to force the public to reconsider its morals' (resources book, p199). In Shaw's play Pygmalion, which concentrated on two concepts the social class and gender approach by illustrating the men whom undertake to keep women relaying on them and under their command, but finally he supports the equality and how women should be mindful and should ask to get her rights.




Shaw created Higgins in order to reflect his ideas. Higgins was phonetic. He effected this amazing transformation by teaching Eliza who came from the class-work society sells flower in the streets, into a lady to speak correctly and beautifully. Higgins was the typical male shows his superiority and to woman, and show how the society's consider of woman. He benefits from Eliza and treated her as an object not as a human being who wants to learn, he makes merciless on of her. His rudeness was clear from the first meeting, like when she said "well, if you were gentlemen, you might ask me to site down, I think. Higgins answered Pickering: Shall we ask this baggage to sit down, or shall we through her out of the window?" (Pygmalion, p 26). Higgins and Pickering made a bet on Eliza by transform her who was cockney speaking into a woman as poised and well spoken as a duchess in a matter of months. He started by having Mrs. Pearce, his housekeeper bathe Eliza and give her new cloth, and getting rid of her old cloth by burning them without taking her opinion. Higgins trained Eliza to speak properly, but he was showing his superiority and power on her, and punishing her when she made mistakes with no sympathy and mercy. He didn't care for Eliza's reputation when his mother asked him on what terms she is staying with them he didn't care he said "well, dash me if I do! I've had to work at the girl every…so forth" (Pygmalion, p. 64-65). On other hand Pickering the linguist of Indian dialects, agreed to cover the costs of the experiment, always treating her like a lady.





The wager is definitely won, but Higgins and Pickering are now bored with the project, he felt like Eliza as a prize wife who likes to transfer woman to lady duchess, by putting her beside him in a position as if she is an accessories wearing a jewel to let people see what this man made. Higgins focuses upon his task (of passing of Eliza as a duchess) with absolute concentration and objectivity. Higgins and Pickering discussed on how they won and succeeded in their mission which caused Eliza to be hurt although she was the one who made all the work. After succeed, Higgins treated Eliza as a maid by giving her order, like asking for his slippers, and when he told her to switch the lights off. She was confused and angry, she throw Higgins' slipper at him in a rage, he felt threatened by this change and get mad when she talks back and faces him, also she returns him the hired jewelry, were Higgins accused her of ingratiated, he didn't like the way she defended herself, he also didn't like her independence, this proved that he is a male chauvinism that after transforming Eliza as a duchess still treated her bad.





Eliza can be seen as a morality character as she struggles to achieve spiritual salvation. The play charts Eliza's spiritual journey from illusion to reality or from the darkness of ignorance to the light of self-awareness. She struggles against the varied temptations and finally achieves self-awareness as a human being. She acquires enough independence of spirit, strength of character and maturity of thought to stand up to Higgins and criticize his way of life.





As for Clara, she was very nervous, when Pickering started talk with her, she start shouting, this shows that the way of thinking of women not only limited in lower class, but also with the middle class, the same as Eliza, who was nervous as well she shouted when Higgins was writing notes she was worried on her integrity, that people might think that she is a prostitute.





In Pygmalion, Shaw presents the classic theme of drama. Nevertheless, in the Pygmalion narrative as told by Ovid in ****morphoses, was described as having horror for women and he thus decides to remain single. Ovid explains that Pygmalion's revolt for women is due to the behavior of the properties. Yet Pygmalion longs for a feminine ideal and is inspired to sculpture an extremely beautiful woman in ivory and name it Galatea. Upon finishing his marvelous piece of sculpture, he clothes the state with colorful garments and adorns it with jewelry, so he fell in love with the statue. In Shaw's play, Higgins' transforms a common flower girl into a graceful lady, like the sculptor Pygmalion in the Ovidian legend carved a beautiful statue out of shapeless ivory. Higgins effects this amazing transformation by teaching Eliza to speak correctly and beautifully. Shaw didn't like the idea that Higgins might end up marring Eliza, because Higgins only love himself and admire his mother, especially when Higgins suggested that Eliza should marry.





Shaw was influenced in Shakespeare's play. "The Taming of the Shrew" and "Pygmalion" discusses the theme of equality, Shaw's characters are inspired by Shakespeare, Shaw also criticized his societies treatment of women, he believed in didactic theater which means it can teach us a lesson, also there are similarities in theme, a man accepts the challenge of transforming a woman. Shaw doesn't believe in physical violence or verbal violence, he rejected male domination over women.





Eliza has been made a lady, regardless of her origins. During that time, the belief that only a man turns a woman into a lady. This is illustrated in Eliza's helplessness and in the way Higgins treats her. The conflict reaches its climax when Higgins suggested that Eliza should marry. As to Eliza's situation, she had to decide between marrying and going out to work, although she was transferred from lower class into higher but still, she should work, to get money.





However, Eliza begins to rebel against Higgins by throwing the slippers at him. That can be seen as a way of release to the other ladies. Eliza's behavior stands for women who struggled for their rights in those days
غلطه الايام غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-19-2010, 06:39 PM   #7 (permalink)
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Discuss the theme of equality in George Bernard Shaw’s play Pygmalion. How is this theme dealt with in terms of gender?

Suggested Answer and Marking Emphasis:

The student can argue either that George Bernard Shaw is indeed a feminist or a male chauvinist. Allow for arguments on both sides of the spectrum for [truth] is in the eye of the beholder.

Shaw makes Eliza defy men with her daunting "I am a good girl, I am" echoed repeatedly throughout the play. Here Eliza is defying societal expectations of young women in her position. Shaw's feminism is not only shown in the character of the defiant and feisty flower girl

but also in the character of Higgins' mother, who does not approve of her son's behaviour. Mrs. Higgins rejects the way men view women. She tells Higgins and Pickering that they are babies playing with a "live doll." Mrs. Higgins' outburst "Oh, men! Men!! Men!!!" at the end of Act Three (p.168) also emphasizes Shaw's dissatisfaction with the doll like image of women. Mrs. Higgins' anger is cleverly shown increasing in intensity with the gradual addition of exclamation marks. Mrs. Higgins' anger parallels Eliza's feminist rage, which is clearly shown in the scene where Eliza throws Higgins' slippers in his face. This represents quite a remarkable reversal in Eliza's poor girl servant attitude, but somehow the reader is not really surprised because Eliza possesses a defiant spirit at the outset of the play. Shaw is also true to his feminism when he refuses to end the play with the traditional marriage of the hero and heroine. Allowing for a marriage between Higgins and Eliza would mean that Shaw has succumbed to the conventions of society which he has set out to question. Higgins is a domineering character and would definitely dominate in a marriage with Eliza. In this case, Eliza would have been put back into her "proper" place so to speak. This, of course, would have meant that Shaw was denying any form of equality between men and women, in addition to maintaining that a woman's place was in the home. By allowing Eliza to marry Freddy in the "epilogue," however, Shaw is indeed reversing the situation between men and women and turning things upside down in his usual style. Freddy would be fetching Eliza's slippers, not vice versa. Surprisingly, it is Higgins who sounds the ultimate feminist call in the play when he tells Eliza in Act Five, "I think a woman fetching a man's slippers is a disgusting sight: did I ever fetch your slippers? I think a good deal more of you for throwing them in my face. No use slaving for me and then saying you want to be cared for: who cares for a slave?" (p. 100). While Higgins vocalizes these thoughts in the play, it is hard to imagine him actually putting them into practice in a marriage with Eliza, for example. She would forever be fetching his slippers.

Another interesting point to consider is that Eliza's supposed reformation comes at the hands of men. It does not come from within. Higgins claims in Act Five: "By George, Eliza, I said that I'd make a woman of you; and I have" (p. 104). Both Higgins' and Pickerings' attitudes presuppose woman under the male gaze. Is there a counter argument provided in the play? Can anybody dispute Higgins' claim? Arguing that it is not Higgins who changes Eliza, but Pickering, who treats her like a lady and teaches her self respect, does not put an end to the debate. Pickering is as much of a man as Higgins; the creator is still male, whether the artist shaping the doll/sculpture is the gentle Pickering or the harsh Higgins. Shaw's chauvinism is clear—only man can reform woman. We are back to where we started; without man, there is no woman. So, is Shaw really calling for the equality of women in Pygmalion
غلطه الايام غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-19-2010, 06:41 PM   #8 (permalink)
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نموذج 2007
The student can argue either that George Bernard Shaw is indeed a feminist or a male chauvinist. Allow for arguments on both sides of the spectrum for [truth] is in the eye of the beholder.

Shaw makes Eliza defy men with her daunting "I am a good girl, I am" echoed repeatedly throughout the play. Here Eliza is defying societal expectations of young women in her position. Shaw's feminism is not only shown in the character of the defiant and feisty flower girl

but also in the character of Higgins' mother, who does not approve of her son's behaviour. Mrs. Higgins rejects the way men view women. She tells Higgins and Pickering that they are babies playing with a "live doll." Mrs. Higgins' outburst "Oh, men! Men!! Men!!!" at the end of Act Three (p.168) also emphasizes Shaw's dissatisfaction with the doll like image of women. Mrs. Higgins' anger is cleverly shown increasing in intensity with the gradual addition of exclamation marks. Mrs. Higgins' anger parallels Eliza's feminist rage, which is clearly shown in the scene where Eliza throws Higgins' slippers in his face. This represents quite a remarkable reversal in Eliza's poor girl servant attitude, but somehow the reader is not really surprised because Eliza possesses a defiant spirit at the outset of the play. Shaw is also true to his feminism when he refuses to end the play with the traditional marriage of the hero and heroine. Allowing for a marriage between Higgins and Eliza would mean that Shaw has succumbed to the conventions of society which he has set out to question. Higgins is a domineering character and would definitely dominate in a marriage with Eliza. In this case, Eliza would have been put back into her "proper" place so to speak. This, of course, would have meant that Shaw was denying any form of equality between men and women, in addition to maintaining that a woman's place was in the home. By allowing Eliza to marry Freddy in the "epilogue," however, Shaw is indeed reversing the situation between men and women and turning things upside down in his usual style. Freddy would be fetching Eliza's slippers, not vice versa. Surprisingly, it is Higgins who sounds the ultimate feminist call in the play when he tells Eliza in Act Five, "I think a woman fetching a man's slippers is a disgusting sight: did I ever fetch your slippers? I think a good deal more of you for throwing them in my face. No use slaving for me and then saying you want to be cared for: who cares for a slave?" (p. 100). While Higgins vocalizes these thoughts in the play, it is hard to imagine him actually putting them into practice in a marriage with Eliza, for example. She would forever be fetching his slippers.

Another interesting point to consider is that Eliza's supposed reformation comes at the hands of men. It does not come from within. Higgins claims in Act Five: "By George, Eliza, I said that I'd make a woman of you; and I have" (p. 104). Both Higgins' and Pickerings' attitudes presuppose woman under the male gaze. Is there a counter argument provided in the play? Can anybody dispute Higgins' claim? Arguing that it is not Higgins who changes Eliza, but Pickering, who treats her like a lady and teaches her self respect, does not put an end to the debate. Pickering is as much of a man as Higgins; the creator is still male, whether the artist shaping the doll/sculpture is the gentle Pickering or the harsh Higgins. Shaw's chauvinism is clear—only man can reform woman. We are back to where we started; without man, there is no woman. So, is Shaw really calling for the equality of women in Pygmalion
غلطه الايام غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-19-2010, 06:58 PM   #9 (permalink)
غلطه الايام
رومانسي مبتديء
 
الصورة الرمزية غلطه الايام
 
الموضوع او الرويايه تحت النقاش اتمنى ان تسجلو ما رح تندموا خصوصاً طلاب الي يدرسوا في ارحب

كمان في دورات ابشركم هنا في المنتدى في التنميه البشريه والانجليزي وكمان الكمبيوتر التسجيل فيها حيبداء قريب مش عارف بالظبط بس حتواصل مع المشرفين

كمان اعرفكم بالمشرفين الذوق والخدومين هنا في هالمنتدى والله عسل

اشوفكم على خير





YeMeNi_4_EvEr




ليس هناك من خدمة يمكن أن يؤديها الفرد لأمته أجلُ من أن يملأ ارجاءها بالناس الناجحين، والأفراد المؤمنين بأنفسهم ، والواثقين من مقدرتهم على تحقيق كل الأماني الطيبة والحصول على سائر الأشياء الجميلة في الحياة

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة غلطه الايام ; 10-19-2010 الساعة 07:01 PM
غلطه الايام غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-23-2010, 04:30 PM   #10 (permalink)
غلطه الايام
رومانسي مبتديء
 
الصورة الرمزية غلطه الايام
 
اهلين ياعبد الرزاق عنخزن عندك اليوم وخلي محمد ياكل طماطيس ^_^
غلطه الايام غير متصل   رد مع اقتباس
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