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قديم 01-24-2009, 06:08 PM   #1 (permalink)
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Red face الله يوفقكم ويفرج همومكم وكربكم , ساعدوني , انا تعبت كثير ,

السلام عليكم ,

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ساعدوني بحل هذه الاسئله ,

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انا خايقه و ودي انتحر خلاص الله يوفقكم ويفرج همومكم وكربكم , ساعدوني , انا تعبت كثير ,

1. George Eliot is a novelist with a difference. Discuss.

2. The suffering of Dickens is the suffering of the Victorian period? Do you agree.

3. Charles Dickens was a proleteriate master serving capitalist interest. Comment.

4. Charles Dickens was a chanced child thrown at the mercy of the church wardens? comment.

5.Geoge Eliot was the first major feminine voice in fiction. Do you agree?

6.Discuss william Makepeace Thackeray as a novelist of distinction.

7. Discuss the main features of the Victorian Novel?

8. The 19th century novel is the culmination point of English novel. Do you agree.

9.Thomas Hardy is the most impractical voice of the victorian novel.Do you agree.?

10. Thomas hardy's pastoral idealism borders on an idealistic strain. Comment.

11-how does the 19century english novel reflects the spirit of the time?

12-19century english no is the study of the daily drama of life?

13-compare between 19 century English novel and American novel?

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الله يوفقكم ويفرج همومكم وكربكم , ساعدوني , انا تعبت كثير ,

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قديم 01-27-2009, 05:41 PM   #2 (permalink)
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قديم 01-27-2009, 06:31 PM   #3 (permalink)
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article about Eliot
Eliot wrote the novel Middlemarch. Making masterful use of a counterpointed plot, Eliot presents the stories of a number of denizens of a small English town on the eve of the Reform Bill of 1832. The main characters, Dorothea Brooke and Tertius Lydgate, long for exceptional lives but are powerfully constrained both by their own unrealistic expectations and by a conservative society. The novel is notable for its deep psychological insight and sophisticated character portraits.[citation needed]

Throughout her career, Eliot wrote with a politically astute pen. From Adam Bede to The Mill on the Floss and Silas Marner, Eliot presented the cases of social outsiders and small-town persecution. No author since Jane Austen had been as socially conscious and as sharp in pointing out the hypocrisy of the country squires. Felix Holt, the Radical and The Legend of Jubal were overtly political, and political crisis is at the heart of Middlemarch. Readers in the Victorian era particularly praised her books for their depictions of rural society, for which she drew on her own early experiences, and she shared with Wordsworth the belief that there was much interest and importance in the mundane details of ordinary country lives. Eliot did not, however, confine herself to her bucolic roots. Romola, an historical novel set in late 15th century Florence and touching on the lives of several real persons such as the priest Girolamo Savonarola, displays her wider reading and interests. In The Spanish Gypsy, Eliot made a foray into verse, creating a work whose initial popularity has not endured.

The religious elements in her fiction also owe much to her upbringing, with the experiences of Maggie Tulliver from The Mill on the Floss sharing many similarities with the young Mary Anne Evans's own development. When Silas Marner is persuaded that his alienation from the church means also his alienation from society, the author's life is again mirrored with her refusal to attend church. She was at her most autobiographical in Looking Backwards, part of her final printed work Impressions of Theophrastus Such. By the time of Daniel Deronda, Eliot's sales were falling off, and she faded from public view to some degree. This was not helped by the biography written by her husband after her death, which portrayed a wonderful, almost saintly, woman totally at odds with the scandalous life people knew she had led. In the 20th century she was championed by a new breed of critics; most notably by Virginia Woolf, who called Middlemarch "one of the few English novels written for grown-up people". The various film and television adaptations of Eliot's books have re-introduced her to the wider-reading public.

article about Dickens
The Age of Dickens and his Literacy Style:

Victorian England and Dickens as the product of this age:

The nineteenth Century England had everyone, from Queen Victoria to the street sweepers, either read Dickens or had Dickens read to them. Reading Dickens today is more of a challenge nowadays as many of the words he used are obsolete now. Having a good reference book at hand is much of a help to understand him and his works, no doubt he’s as entertaining today as he was 150 years ago, and that’s because he really was a great classic novelist, unmatched in his brilliance and craftsmanship.

Charles Dickens belonged to the Early Victorian Era when Queen Victoria (1837-1901) was ruling England, and represented the true zeitgeist through his works. In the early Victorian period the novel made a rapid progress. Novel-reading was one of the chief occupations of the educated public, and material had to be found for every taste. The result was, that the scope of the novel, which during the eighteenth century dealt mainly with contemporary life and manners, was considerably enlarged. A number of brilliant novelists showed that it was possible to adapt the novel to almost all purposes of literature whatsoever. In fact, it was believed that if we want to understand the intellectual life of the period, we need not go outside the sphere of fiction, as it is rightly said :

“Novel is a realistic portrayal of society”

The novels produced during this age took various shapes – sermons, political pamphlets, philosophical discourses, social essays, autobiographies and poetic prose. The theatre which could prove to be a potential rival of fiction had lost its pomp, and it did not revive till the later half of the nineteenth century. So the early Victorian period saw the heyday of the English novel.

The general assumptions novelists of that time shared included the fact that they were conscious of the havoc caused by the Industrial revolution, the ever-increasing level of poverty, and accumulation of riches in a few hands yet they believed like common Victorians that these evils and social ills would prove to be temporary and that on the whole England was growing prosperous, which was evident from the enormous increase in material wealth and the physical amenities of civilization, and there was no reason to think otherwise. Another important view that the novelists shared with the public was the acceptance of the idea of respectability, which attached great importance to superficial morality in business as well as in domestic and sexual relations. The novelists were artists, voicing the thoughts of the masses and also public entertainers that is why a literary genius like Dickens enjoyed great power and authority to influence the reading lot.

Dickens’ stories, characters and literary techniques:

“. . . Suffering has been stronger than all other teaching, and has taught me to understand what your heart used to be. I have been bent and broken, but - I hope - into a better shape.”

– Great Expectations

The themes of his stories:
Through the force of his pen Dickens did his utmost to point out the social upheaval, sense of insecurity among people, lack of basic provisions for the poor and labour class and satirized the British aristocratic snobbery. He highlighted the issue of fast urbanization, which encroached upon the rural region as well, depriving England of a vast simple, beautiful and peaceful countryside.

His own childhood being not a very happy one, made him write convincingly of the wrongs inflicted on children by adults in the 19th Century. As a social critic he focused sharply on the inequities of his environment. He hinted at political corruption, utilitarian lack of feelings and imagination as well as the slums where criminals were born and nurtured. So the themes and central ideas around which he knitted his plots were not something unknown to the general public, it was their own story told in their own language, used as an art.

The realistic characters:
Much of Dickens’s genius can be said to have rested with his ability to create a wide variety of memorable characters. They were often based on people that he knew, some could be charming, humorous and gentle, fiery, idiotic, endearing, pathetic, villainous, conniving and horrible. Many have remained and will continue to remain the most memorable in fiction, these were said to be his children who came out of the pages and played in front of him, when he wrote about them.

Much of the humor of the novels derives from Dickens’s descriptions of his characters and from his ability to capture their speech mannerisms and idiosyncratic traits which makes them true to life and enjoyable. He admired Shakespeare and was influenced by his works. He created a world of characters distinctively cruel and suffering, and brought them to life with meaningful detail. He enchanted the reader with a myriad of odd gestures, expressions, speech patterns and physiognomies. Dickens's writing style is flamboyant and poetic, with a strong comic touch. He has a knack for uniting humour with pathos in a sort of tragic-comedy. The characters are among the most memorable in English literature, like Ebenezer Scrooge, Fagin, Abel Magwitch, Samuel Pickwick, Pip and Miss Havisham, just to name a few.
We see him writing in an episodic manner too as he wrote serialized novels prolifically while working for magazines. The monthly numbers kept people anticipating for more and more which makes it evident that he had gripping, well-knitted plots. We witness in his works the picaresque tradition made popular by Henry Fielding which Dickens used with much expertise. Moreover what we get to see more frequently, is this autobiographical element in his works, he could not rid himself of his childhood memories and experiences and one most likely reason could be that it lessened his pain and burden of the difficult phases of the past life, which he felt like sharing and hence unburdened to his public.

The autobiographical element:

David Copperfield being one of the best known autobiographical works does move us emotionally and we find ourselves sympathizing with Dickens's suffering soul. Bleak House too is based upon writer’s own experiences as a court reporter. The snobbish nature of Pip from Great Expectations also has some affinity to the author himself. The character of Fagin is believed to be formed around Ikey Solomon, a 19th century Jewish criminal of London and later Australia. Dickens is said to have met and interviewed Solomon after a court appearance whilst working as a journalist, and thus got the idea of projecting this character as the gang leader in Oliver Twist.

Dickens may have dwelt on his childhood experiences, but felt embarrassed at their consciousness and would conceal it in his realistic accounts of the sordidness. His life especially the early years, was nothing short of a mystery for his admirers until six years after his death when John Forster published a biography on which Dickens had collaborated. A shameful past in Victorian times could harm reputations, just as it did for some of his characters, and this may have been Dickens's own fear. The suffering of his family while at prison too reflects in some plots like that of Little Dorrit. The snobbish disposition of Pip from Great Expectations also has some affinity to the author himself. Dickens also used the train crash incident for his short ghost story The Signal-Man in which the main character has a foreboding of his own death in a rail crash. He utilized several other previous rail accidents to supplement his stories, such as the Clayton Tunnel rail crash of 1861.

John Dickens too was immortalized by his son when his grand gesture and grandiloquent locutions inspired Charles to form a character the ridiculous and yet endearing Mr. Micawber in David Copperfield. Like his own worried mother, he characterizes Mrs. Micawber, who tries to make the two ends meet with a scheme to open a school, which of course failed. Elizabeth Dickens inspired her son to draw one of his most amusing portraits, the absurd Mrs. Nickleby in Nicholas Nickleby who is full of “nonsensical sense”. Mary, Charles’ sister-in-law who moved into their house and died in 1837 at the age of seventeen in Dickens's arms, eventually became the model for Dora Copperfield.

It’s impossible to overlook the little Dickens living in the pages of Great Expectations, that give us an insight into his own character, his dreams, ambitions and the sense of guilt and shame he felt at being through miseries of sorts. He was a self-made person as he rose from humble origins to success, wealth and fame. He has mocked at the Victorian concept of “Gentlemanly behaviour” and has emphasized that human emotions and values will be the same world over, for all times.

William Makepeace Thackeray

WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY (1811-1863), one of the greatest of English authors and novelists, son of Richmond Thackeray (Mrs Richmond Thackeray was born Miss Becher), and grandson of W. R. Thackeray of Hadley, Middlesex, was born at Calcutta on July 18, 1811. Both his father and grandfather had been Indian civil servants. His mother, who was only nineteen at the date of his birth, was left a widow in 1816, and afterwards married Major Henry Carmichael Smyth. Thackeray himself was sent home to England from India as a child, and went to Charterhouse, since his time removed to Godalming from its ancient site near Smithfield. Anthony Trollope, in his book on Thackeray in the English Men of Letters series, quotes a letter written to him about Thackeray’s school-days by Mr G. S. Venables. "He came to school young," Mr Venables wrote, "a pretty, gentle, and rather timid boy." This accords with the fact that all through Thackeray’s writings the student may find traces of the sensitiveness which often belongs to the creative mind, and which, in the boy who does not understand its meaning and its possible power is apt to assume the guise of a shy disposition. To this very matter Mr Venables tersely refers in a later passage of the letter quoted by Trollope : "When I knew him better, in later years, I thought I could recognize the sensitive nature which he had as a boy." Another illustration is found in the statement, which will be recognized as exact by all readers of Thackeray, that "his change of retrospective feeling about his school-days was very characteristic. In his earlier books he always spoke of the Charterhouse as Slaughter House and Smith-field. As he became famous and prosperous his memory softened, and Slaughter House was changed into Grey Friars, where Colonel Newcome ended his life." Even in the earlier references the bitterness which has often been so falsely read into Thackeray is not to be found. In "Mr and Mrs Frank Berry" (Men’s Wives) there is a description of a Slaughter-House fight, following on an incident almost identical with that used in Vanity Fair for the fight between Dobbin and Cuff. In both cases the brutality of school life, as it then was, is very fully recognized and described, but not to the exclusion of the chivalry which goes alongside with it. In the first chapter of "Mr and Mrs Frank Berry," Berry himself and Old Hawkins both have a touch of the heroic. In the story which forms part of Men’s Wives the bully whom Berry gallantly challenges is beaten, and one hears no more of him. In Vanity Fair Cuff the swaggerer is beaten in a similar way, but regains his popularity by one well-timed stroke of magnanimity, and afterwards shows the truest kindness to his conqueror.


A passion for the Victorian novel

The novel never reached greater heights than in the Victorian period, yet the era is still widely misjudged and belittled. D J Taylor explains why his passion for the Victorian novel lead him to create one of his own

'The Victorian tree," the antiquarian and ghost-story writer M R James once declared, "cannot but be expected to produce Victorian fruit." In making this point, James - who lived almost exactly half his life within the Victorian age and half outside it - was simply acknowledging his own cultural upbringing. In fact the Victorian tree has gone on producing bumper crops with a vigour that would have surprised even Mr Gladstone. More than a century after the Widow of Windsor's death, in the 64th year of her reign, we are still clustered on the margins of her curiously elongated shadow. Here am I, for example, a hip young fortysomething, raised in the era of Sergeant Pepper and the Three Day Week, reaching out to embrace the tumult of the 21st century, and yet my grandfather, whose picture sits in the frame in my parents' dining room, fought in the Boer War.

Viewed from the angle of the family album, consequently, the Victorian age turns suddenly sharp, hard and tangible. The people in it might sport billycock hats, carry parasols and wear impractical-looking dresses, but they are connected to us, if only by dint of appearing in photographs, in a way that the subjects of a Gainsborough portrait are not. Simultaneously, the world they inhabit is intriguingly remote, full of bright, exotic images: Gordon at Khartoum, Prince Albert's whiskers, the glass dome of the Crystal Palace exhibition, the line at Balaclava. However familiar you happen to be with the seamier side of 19th-century life, the statistics for child prostitution and the incidence of venereal disease, it is impossible to drag open the door to the Victorian closet without a gust of Romanticism surging out: a kind of compound made up of fog-bound streets and gas-light, steam trains and Hansom cabs, tubercular faces and high, cracked voices echoing from attics where the sun never penetrates.

It would be odd if this view of the age of Darwin, Florence Nightingale and Herbert Spencer weren't inextricably bound up in, if not actually created by, the Victorian novel. What is it that even now that gives Victorian fiction its tremendous psychological heft? Why is it that I would far rather sit down to a re-read of George Gissing's Born in Exile or Arthur Morrison's Tales of Mean Streets than the latest Salman Rushdie? Part of this is down to the immense solidity of character than Victorian novelists manage to bring to their cast, the sense of real people, rather than social constructs or representatives of a particular aesthetic theory busily at large in a world that, to quote Melville on Trollope, looks like a slice of England placed under glass, people - more to the point - who are confident of the foundations on which their lives are built. When writers stopped believing in God, their characters lost a dimension, became the "people in paper houses" of Graham Greene's essay on Mauriac, and no amount of post-modern trickery or stream-of-consciousness mongering has ever brought this environmental tethering back.

The other great enticement of a novel like Vanity Fair or Dombey and Son - published side by side in the late 1840s - is the sense of a society in flux, a world taking shape almost too rapidly for the writers who are monitoring its convulsions to keep up. Dickens' career, for instance, began in the era of the stage coach and ended in the age of the locomotive, taking in everything from parliamentary reform and scientific revolution along the way. Socially, his and Thackeray's novels take place half-way up a metaphorical ant-heap, whose inhabitants are scurrying to make their way through a society where most of the barriers that previously worked against social advancement have either been removed or fallen away. Suddenly the world is fall of "bran-new people", to use Dickens' description of the ghastly Veneerings in Our Mutual Friend, and the fictional consequences have been with us for a century and a half.

Dimly visible beneath the ebb and flow of the average Victorian novel is a second, buried world whose representatives are occasionally let out into the first world with devastating results. Television dramatists who adapt Victorian classics for the small screen occasionally pronounce that it is their duty to lob in various bits of sex and seediness on the grounds that George Eliot, Thackeray and co would have done so themselves had they not been constrained by the Victorian censors. In fact most Victorian novelists were perfectly capable of writing convincingly about sex, whether the subject is the Marquis of Steyne's assignations in Vanity Fair or the male prostitute who wanders into Trollope's The Prime Minister. Anyone who wants a brisk demonstration of what a Victorian novelist could do with sexual passion should start with the scene in Trollope's Phineas Finn where Lord Chiltern greets the news that Violet Effingham is prepared to marry him with a cry of "My God! She is my own!" while bounding across the carpet with such bull-like eagerness that Violet is half-terrified by the emotions she has aroused.

All this is clearly prime operational territory for the novelist who follows a century or so in its wake. But having decided that you want to write a Victorian novel, how do you set about it? Immediately a host of procedural dilemmas snap into place, like a row of paperclips obeying the magnet's call. In the realm of dialogue, do you go for mid-19th-century pastiche, or do you come over all contemporary-anachronistic and have Palmerston-era roustabouts bidding their drinking chums "back to my place"? In the matter of sex, do you opt for the "shocking exposés of Victorian sexuality" so beloved of the blurb writers, or do you stop things at the bedroom door (or, as the Victorian themselves did, several storeys beneath)? Do you ornament each scene with the fruits of your research, anatomising the poor sanitation and the crawling bacilli that give the servant girl her pallor, or assume the scenery is already in place in the reader's mind?

The novelist, just as much as the historian or the small-screen adaptor, has a duty to see past life and the people who populate it on their own terms. One of the most irritating novels I ever read was The French Lieutenant's Woman (1969), the late John Fowles's account of an 1860s courtship. Not only has Fowles done his research among the mid-Victorian fashion catalogues, so that even the hat of a soliciting prostitute is immediately described in relation to contemporary styles, but he patronises his creations, takes them out into the brightly lit, book-lined study of his imagination, where Freud and Sartre stare from the walls, and condescends to them. What begins as an examination of Victorian sexual life ends up as an account of our own attitudes to that life, which is a rather different, and a less satisfactory, thing.

The plot of my novel Kept, whose half-mad heroine lies concealed in a remote country house while guardian and lawyer plot to defraud her, was suggested by the story of Thackeray's wife, Isabella, who lost her reason after the birth of her third child, tried to drown herself during a boat-trip across the Irish Channel, and spent the remaining 53 years of her life in a state of semi-autism. Without ever knowing it, Isabella inaugurated the whole "madwoman in the attic" tradition of Victorian literature. When Charlotte Brontë dedicated the second edition of Jane Eyre to Thackeray, a rumour sped round literary London to the effect that the novel was a roman à clef, with the author as the heroine, Thackeray as Mr Rochester and Isabella the wild-eyed dement upstairs.

Kept is also a kind of homage to the "voices" of Victorian literature that have haunted me ever since I started reading Victorian novels: George Moore's servant girl, Esther Waters, as she stands on the station platform at the start of her new life; Mary Mann's Norfolk labourers; Trollope's conniving lawyers. One of the oddest voices I ever came across, and borrowed for my own heroine, is that of Thackeray's eldest daughter Anny, as revealed in the journal she began shortly after her father's death in 1863. She was confident about certain things, timorous about others, near-masochistic about her failings and "unworthiness", practically sexual in the intensity of her feelings for her lost papa - her journal is a quintessentially Victorian ××××××××. The point about Anny Thackeray is that, in the last resort, she is not like us, not there to be taken out and used - which is what nearly all history does - as a way of demonstrating our superiority to the people who preceded us in time. Like everyone else, the Victorians deserve lives of their own.


article about Hardy
Although he wrote a great deal of poetry, mostly unpublished until after 1898, Hardy is best remembered for the series of novels and short stories he wrote between 1871 and 1895. His novels are set in the imaginary world of Wessex, a large area of south and south-west England, using the name of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom that covered the area. Hardy was part of two worlds; on the one hand he had a deep emotional bond with the rural way of life which he had known as a child, but on the other he was aware of the changes which were under way, and the current social problems from the innovations in agriculture - he captured the epoch just before the railways and the Industrial Revolution changed the English countryside - to the unfairness and hypocrisy of Victorian sexual behaviour.

Hardy critiques certain social constraints that hindered the lives of those living in the 19th century. Considered a Victorian Realist writer, Hardy examines the social constraints that are part of the Victorian status quo, suggesting these rules hinder the lives of all involved and ultimately leading to unhappiness. In Two on a Tower, Hardy seeks to take a stand against these rules and sets up a story against the backdrop of social structure by creating a romantic story of love that crosses the boundaries of class. The reader is forced to consider the option of disposing of the conventions set up for love. 19th century society enforces the conventions and societal pressure ensures conformity. Swithin St Cleeve's idealism pits him against contemporary social constraints. He is a self-willed individual set up against the coercive strictures of social rules and mores.“ In a novel structured around contrasts, the main opposition is between Swithin St Cleeve and Lady Viviette Constantine, who are presented as binary figures in a series of ways: aristocratic and lower class, youthful and mature, single and married, fair and dark, religious and agnostic…she (Lady Viviette Constantine) is also deeply conventional, absurdly wishing to conceal their marriage until Swithin has achieved social status through his scientific work, which gives rise to uncontrolled ironies and tragic-comic misunderstandings (Harvey 108). ”

Hardy’s stories take into consideration the events of life and their effects. Fate plays a big role as the thematic basis for many of his novels. Characters are constantly encountering crossroads, which are symbolic of a point of opportunity and transition. Far From the Madding Crowd tells a tale of lives that are constructed by chance. “Had Bathsheba not sent the valentine, had Fanny not missed her wedding, for example, the story would have taken an entirely different path.”[9] Once things have been put into motion, they will play out. Hardy’s characters are in the grips of too much overwhelming fate.

He paints a vivid picture of rural life in the 19th century, with all its joys and suffering, a fatalistic world full of superstition and injustice. His heroes and heroines are often alienated from society and rarely become readmitted into it. He tends to emphasise the impersonal and, generally, negative powers of fate over the mainly working class people he represented in his novels. Hardy exhibits in his books elemental passion, deep instinct, the human will struggling against fatal and ill-comprehended laws, a victim also of unforeseeable change. Tess, for example, ends with:“ Justice was done, and the President of the Immortals, in Æschylean phrase, had ended his sport with Tess. And the d'Urberville knights and dames slept on in their tombs unknowing. The two speechless gazers bent themselves down to the earth, as if in prayer, and remained thus a long time, absolutely motionless: the flag continued to wave silently. As soon as they had strength they arose, joined hands again, and went on. ”

In particular, Hardy's novel Jude the Obscure is full of the sense of crisis of the later Victorian period (as witnessed in Matthew Arnold's 'Dover Beach'). It describes the tragedy of two new social types, Jude Fawley, a working man who attempts to educate himself, and his lover and cousin, Sue Bridehead, who represents the 'new woman' of the 1890s.[10]

His mastery, as both an author and poet, lies in the creation of natural surroundings making discoveries through close observation and acute sensitiveness. He notices the smallest and most delicate details, yet he can also paint vast landscapes of his own Wessex in melancholy or noble moods.[11] (His eye for poignant detail - such as the spreading bloodstain on the ceiling at the end of Tess of the d'Urbervilles and little Jude's suicide note - often came from clippings from newspaper reports of real events).

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